While the need for factual recall or comprehension must be recognized, teachers also need to challenge students with higher level questions requiring analysis, synthesis, or evaluation. This strategy also works well for introducing other teaching methods, or actively involving students in knowledge construction. It should be noted that the methods appearing in the diagram are examples only, and are not intended to be inclusive of all instructional methods. Grouping is heterogeneous with respect to student characteristics. As most aspects of our daily lives are likely to undergo profound changes, independent learning will enable individuals to respond to the changing demands of work, family and society. The following discussion focuses specifically upon the instructional portion of the Conceptual Base. The following are indirect instructional strategies except. Direct Instruction. Regarding the latter, Shostak (1986) suggests that an explanation can show: Much student learning occurs through observing others. In concept attainment, students figure out the attributes of a group or category that has already been formed by the teacher. This strategy is most appropriate when: In order for students to achieve optimum benefits during indirect instruction, it may be necessary for the teacher to preteach the skills and processes necessary to achieve the intended learning outcomes. Students will be expected to think about the problem to find the best logical solution based on their own perception. Emphasis is placed upon the process of thinking as this applies to student interaction with issues, data, topics, concepts, materials, and problems. Seaman and Fellenz (1989) suggest that discussion and sharing provide learners with opportunities to "react to the ideas, experience, insights, and knowledge of the teacher or of peer learners and to generate alternative ways of thinking and feeling" (p. 119). This requires a high level of interaction among the learner, the teacher, the area of study, available resources, and the learning environment. Order peaks and elevations to order integers, Solving Multi-step Equation using Algebra Tiles, Written Curriculum , Recommended Curriculum and Supported Curriculum, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 1, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 10, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 11, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 12, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 2, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 3, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 4, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 5, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 6, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 7, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 8, Mathematics Curriculum Expectations for Grade 9, Arithmetic Operations with Decimal Numbers, Impact of leadership styles on students’ academic performance. Laboratory: Question and Answer about the lab Demonstration Indirect instructio n is an approach to teaching and learning in which concepts, patterns and ab stract ions are taught in th e context of strategies that emphasize concept learning, inquiry This requires a high level of interaction among the learner, the teacher, the area of study, available resources, and the learning environment. Direct instruction is usually deductive. strategies of direct instruction. Indirect instruction is more time consuming than direct instruction, teachers relinquish some control, and outcomes can be unpredictable and less safe. Because there are so many variables for teachers to consider when making decisions about teaching and learning, it is essential that they have a conceptual base for understanding Saskatchewan's Core Curriculum and a framework for understanding the levels associated with instructional decision making. Classroom Setting: Question and Answer Discussion over reading assignments Lecture Demonstrations Presenting a video . while they conduct the inquiry (Martin, 1983). Direct Instruction is efficient. To help students accomplish this, the teacher selects a set of events or materials for the lesson. formation, concept attainment, cloze procedure, problem solving, and guided As quoted and adopted from: Calls for responses should be distributed among volunteers and non-volunteers, and the teacher should encourage students to speak to the whole class when responding. They also include such actions as planning, structuring, focusing, and managing. Problem Solving. The use of leadership toolssuch as Brainstormers, Fishbone Diagrams, and Plus/Delta Charts aids a student in con… Interactive instruction requires the refinement of observation, listening, interpersonal, and intervention skills and abilities by both teacher and students. Examples of indirect instruction methods include reflective discussion, concept Experiential learning is inductive, learner centered, and activity oriented. Students that have been helped to develop these processes and abilities often do better academically because positive interaction fosters self concept. Students generally have some kind of theoretical frame when they begin inductive inquiry. indirect instruction methods include reflective discussion, concept formation, concept attainment, cloze procedure, problem solving, and guided inquiry. In the classroom, imaging exercises nurture and develop students' creative potentials. Instructional Strategies While independent study may be initiated by student or teacher, the focus here will be on planned independent study by students under the guidance or supervision of a classroom teacher. Technology….what message are you sending? "Effective teaching is not a set of generic practices, but instead is a set of context-driven decisions about teaching. In concept attainment, students figure out the attributes of a group or category that has already been formed by the teacher. Inquiry The class is viewed as a work group, engaged in a productive academic enterprise. A. Classroom Group Interaction Indirect Instruction. Learning Encourages them to solve problems by themselves. Although instructional strategies can be categorized, the distinctions are not always clear-cut. from later instruction; the focus is personalized understanding and long term retention of In addition, lectured content is often rapidly forgotten. Student groups are small, usually consisting of two to six members. Strategies of both types of learning may be combined, providing a menu of teaching strategies … Guided & Shared - reading, listening, viewing, thinking. Students make up a diverse population with varying backgrounds, knowledge and learning styles. Johnson and Johnson (1989) state: Co-operative learning experiences, compared to competitive and individualistic ones, promote higher achievement, greater motivation, more positive interpersonal relations among students, more positive attitudes toward the subject area and teacher,greater self esteem and psychological health, more accurate perspective taking, and greater social skills (p. 8-9). The teacher should begin by obtaining the attention of the students before the question is asked. Educators recognize that knowledge is more than correct answers and can be gained through creative inquiry and active participation by students. concepts or generalizations; think their way through controversies or dilemmas; inquire into their preconceptions and what they already know; develop, clarify, and test hypotheses; and. Reflective discussions encourage students to think and talk about what they have observed, heard or read. Students must ask relevant questions and develop ways to search for answers and generate explanations. The approaches are referenced to the goals of education and apply to the objectives of the various curricula. student-centered, although the two strategies can complement each other. Examples of indirect instruction methods include reflective discussion, concept formation, concept attainment, cloze procedure, problem solving, and guided inquiry. Among the instructional skills, questioning holds a place of prominence in many classrooms. Students Can Drift Off Task. Indirect Instruction is a teaching strategy in which the learner is an active and not passive participant. As students become more experienced with learning contracts, the teacher may choose to involve them in setting the learning objectives. A variety of instructional skills and processes exist. The following are instructional strategies of the indirect model: Use of advance organizers Conceptual movement—inductive and deductive Use of examples and nonexamples Use of questions to guide search and discovery Use of student ideas Student self-evaluation Use of group discussion Indirect Instruction is a teaching approach that is STUDENT-CENTERED. In addition, the level of abstraction or complexity is purposefully reduced so that students may become directly involved with underlying concepts. Indirect instruction is not the best way of providing detailed information strategies, methods, and skills may lead teachers to broaden and deepen their Such decision making relies on ongoing student assessment that is linked to learning objectives and processes. Students get more chances to talk, listen, and receive feedback than would be possible in whole-class instruction. Within each level the potential exists for developing both the science and the art of teaching. Discussion should conclude with consensus, a solution, clarification of insights gained, or a summary (preferably one provided by the students). Small groups are particularly effective when the intention is to develop social as well as academic abilities. Indirect instruction is mainly student- centred and emphasizes on allowing students to get involved throughout a lesson by observing thus seeking their own meaning of the lesson. This instructional method is effective when questions are well-phrased so that answering involves more than mechanical searching and copying from a book or other reference. The process of testing generalized assumptions, applying them, and exploring the relationships between, specific elements is stressed. The following are instructional strategies of the indirect model: Use of advance organizers Conceptual movement—inductive and deductive Use of examples and nonexamples Use of questions to guide search and discovery Use of student ideas Student self-evaluation Use of group discussion In this way students come to the realization that knowledge may not be fixed and permanent but may be tentative, emergent, and open to questioning and alternative hypotheses. 2 Skills and Experiential learning occurs when learners: Experiential learning can be viewed as a cycle consisting of five phases, all of which are necessary: The emphasis in experiential learning is on the process of learning and not on the product. Indirect instruction relies heavily on the use of print, non-print, and human resources. Deductive inquiry is based upon the logical assimilation and processing of information. Indirect Instruction -Indirect means that the learner acquires a behavior indirectly by transforming, or constructing, the stimulus material into meaningful response or behavior that differs from both (1) the content being used to present the learning and (2) any previous response given by the student 1. Encourages student involvement and greater exploration of solutions. (Pfeiffer & Jones, 1979). There are two major types of problem solving – reflective and creative. Learning contracts usually require that students demonstrate the new learning in some meaningful way, but students are provided choice in the selection of a method or activity. Make math learning fun and effective with Prodigy Math Game. The teacher may select this approach for some students to support them as they learn to work independently. Learning contracts can be designed so that students function at the academic levels most suitable to them and work with resource materials containing concepts and knowledge that are appropriate to their abilities and experiences. The Direct instruction strategy is highly teacher-directed and is among the most commonly used. Questions should allow for multiple responses. By linking the examples to the labels and by explaining their reasoning, the students form their own understanding of the concept. Indirect Instruction is a teaching approach that is STUDENT-CENTERED. Indirect Instruction In contrast to the direct instruction strategy, indirect instruction is mainly student-centered, although the two strategies can complement each other. The question should be addressed to the entire class before a specific student is asked to respond. Learning contracts can be highly motivating for students. Module 4: What Teaching Strategies are Available? To take responsibility for their lives in times of rapid social change, students need to acquire life-long learning capability. Indirect Instruction. elaborating, summarizing, restructuring, and verifying. While the academic task is of primary importance, students also learn the importance of maintaining group health and harmony, and respecting individual views. Figure 3 illustrates the relationship among instructional models, strategies, methods, and skills. students need to investigate or discover something in order to benefit 8. The teacher arranges the learning environment, provides opportunity for student involvement, and, when appropriate, provides feedback to students while they conduct the inquiry (Martin, 1983). In a Direct … Inquiry based learning provides opportunities for students to experience and acquire processes through which they can gather information about the world. The importance of independent study is captured in the following statement: Independent learning has implications for responsible decision-making, as individuals are expected to analyze problems, reflect, make decisions and take purposeful actions. These are described below. Simulation also allows for types of experimentation that cannot take place in the real environment. When the question and answer method is used effectively, students feel they are being personally addressed by the teacher. They are necessary for procedural purposes and for structuring appropriate learning experiences for students. Describe the major purpose, characteristics, teacher role, and desired environment associated with heuristic modes of instruction: discovery, and inquiry. Awakens students’ interest and curiosity. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Didactic questioning offers the teacher a way to structure the learning process (McNeil & Wiles, 1990). In this instructional method, students are provided with data about a particular concept. An important aspect of the question and answer method is the wording of questions in order to help students think more deeply about the material or unit under study. Indirect instruction is more time consuming than direct instruction, teachers relinquish some control, and outcomes can be unpredictable and less safe. As is the case with strategies, the distinction between methods are not always clear cut although they are categorized for the purposes of this document. Teachers should remember that didactic questions can be simplistic, can encourage guessing, and can discourage insightful answers or creativity. Teachers tell the students the concept or skill to be learned and then lead them through instructional activities designed to result on student learning. Discussion can be meaningfully adapted to many classroom situations. Wait time is defined as the pause between asking the question and soliciting a response. Outside the classroom they can, for example, observe courtroom procedures in a study of the legal system, or conduct a public opinion survey. The three essential conditions for meaningful learning identified by cognitive psychologists are all of the following except. Teachers should establish a positive, productive learning climate and provide group participation training. Figure 5 illustrates how various methods relate to the five strategies presented in the previous section. observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, or forming A teacher can use experiential learning as an instructional strategy both in and outside the classroom. a cause and effect relationship (for example, to show the effect of adding an acid to a base); that an action is governed by a rule or law (for example, to show when to capitalize a noun); a procedure or process (for example, to show the operation of solving a mathematical equation); or. Defining the Instructional Framework As you watch Sue's classroom, notice how she incorporates one of the central principles of the indirect instruction model—the use of questions to guide the search-and-discovery process. Case studies are stories or scenarios, often in narrative form, created and used as a tool for analysis and discussion. In indirect instruction, the role of the teacher shifts from lecturer/director to that of facilitator, supporter, and resource person. This includes exposure to vocabulary that is encountered in an independent reading book or heard in conversation, whether that be in person, in a movie, or online. (Saskatchewan Education, 1988, p. 53). [and] success at achieving the goal must depend on the individual learning of all group members" (p.9). 2. modeling a process. Models represent the broadest level of instructional practices and present a philosophical orientation to instruction. The teacher encourages students to share their thoughts so that the entire class can benefit from individual insights. Inquiry, induction, problem solving, decision making, and discovery are terms that are sometimes used interchangeably to describe indirect instruction. Indirect Many students, because of learning style preferences, may not readily assimilate lectured content. It should be noted that some discussions can lead students to conduct further research. For example, in the classroom students can build and stock an aquarium or engage in a simulation. Strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives. experiences are greatly enhanced through cooperation between teachers, and processes include observing, encoding, recalling, classifying, Lecture Imaging allows students to connect their prior experiences to new ideas under investigation. 10:4The following are indirect instructional strategies except: A) examples and nonexamples B) student self-examination C) learner experience D) mastery learning. Independent Study When responding, students should speak, not only to the teacher, but also to their peers. 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