Earle, 2017.08.05]. Western red cedar, Red cedar, Single wood. This low-lying mosaic of swamps and estuaries represents a habitat long since destroyed in the U.S. by logging, and is (unlike many similar forests in BC) readily accessible. The charcoal of cedar wood mixed with salmon eggs is used by the Quinault to rub on canoe paddles, which are held in pitch wood smoke and then rubbed with green grass to produce a lasting shiny black. Western Red Cedar Tongue & Groove is widely used for its good looks and versatility. Roots are also used by the Quinault for sewing the corners of wooden boxes. A spray of foliage, 15 cm long, upper side [C.J.  It is long-lived; some individuals can live well over a thousand years, with the oldest verified being 1460 years. It is the provincial tree of British Columbia. Western red cedar, Thuja plicata. 1605. comm. Stripping bark is usually started with a series of cuts at the base of the tree above any buttresses, after which the bark is peeled upwards. Western Red Cedar is still an important timber tree today although the second-growth wood is not as resistant to decay, as was the old-growth wood. , The cones are slender, 10 to 18 mm (0.39 to 0.71 in) long, and 4 to 5 mm (0.16 to 0.20 in) broad, with 8 to 12 (rarely 14) thin, overlapping scales. Wads of shredded cedar bark are used as tinder for fires and also carried in a slow torch on journeys. Stewart, Hilary. Description Additional information Description. Western redcedar is the provincial tree of British Columbia (Pojar and Mackinnon 1994). Our cut to size Western Red Cedar timber products (also called sawn to size) are literally sawn down to your chosen measurements and come straight off the saw with no machining performed to the edges, unlike our planed all round products. Harvesting inner bark of redcedar [Dr. Linda B. Brubaker]. Known for thei… In the American horticultural trade, it is also known as the giant arborvitae, by comparison with arborvitae for its close relative Thuja occidentalis. "The roots of the cedar tree are used widely, in both western and eastern Washington, for the coiled and imbricated basket. Western Red Cedar is also considered a fast growing tree, and today is mass farmed to meet the demands of today's society. Some professional loggers of Native American descent have mentioned that they offer quiet or silent propitiations to trees which they fell, following in this tradition. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: It is also widely used throughout Europe and America for making beehive frames. Look out for: the flat sprays of foliage which smell sweet when crushed. Ethnobotanic: Western red cedar … Me and Bob Van Pelt measuring the "Big Mother Cedar" in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia [Adrian Dorst, 1999.12]. Description. Cedar has a long history of withstanding the rigors of time and weather. The soft red-brown timber has a tight, straight grain and few knots. Limited usefulness due to poor circuit uniformity. Western Red Cedar is known for its extremely fine and even grain, its flexibility and strength in proportion to its weight. However, thujaplicins are only found in older trees. Earle, 1987.04.04]. DeBell, J.D., J.J. Morrell, and B.L. Once the tree was felled, the work had only just begun, as it then had to be stripped and dragged down to shore. The Quinault Lake Redcedar was 174 feet (53 m) tall with a diameter of 19.5 feet (5.9 m) at breast height. Western red cedar, hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8, grows to over 200 feet tall in its native range along the Pacific coast. Rather than forming a single column of decay in the heartwood, though, P. sericeomollis tends to cause rings or pockets of decay in the lower bole. , Species of conifer in the family Cupressaceae, sfn error: no target: CITEREFFlora_of_North_America (. The Quinault boil an infusion of cedar limbs to wash sores due to venereal diseases. Some of these substances are aroma compounds and are used in perfumery. Seeds 8-14 per cone, 4-7.5 mm (including wings), reddish brown. While western redcedar is a host to P. weirii, the fungus which causes the disease laminated root rot, redcedar is rated as resistant while other conifers are rated as highly susceptible or susceptible. House planks, house posts, roof boards, and canoes are made exclusively of this wood. , It has been introduced to other temperate zones, including western Europe, Australia (at least as far north as Sydney), New Zealand, the eastern United States (at least as far north as Central New York), and higher elevations of Hawaii. Western Red Cedar Scientific Name: Thuja plicata. Description The Excelsa is a beautiful Western Red cedar that reaches great heights and provides an excellent opportunity for privacy screens or hedges. Mature trees are easily distinguished by their bark (gray in T. plicata, nearly white in C. nootkatensis) and the seed cones are very distinct (bilaterally symmetrical in T. plicata, nearly globose in C. nootkatensis). Tools made of Western Red Cedar have been found in … Because of its favorable performance, Western Red Cedar can be used for interior finish in some building applications where other species would not be permitted. It glues well with epoxy resin or resorcinol adhesive. Cupressaceae (Cypress Family) A large tree with tapering trunk and a narrow, conical crown of short, spreading branches drooping at ends, growing to a height of 30 - 53 m and a diameter of 0.6 - 2.4 m; often larger. It is not a true cedar of the genus Cedrus. Cedar: Tree of Life to the Northwest Coast Indians. It is the second-most common cause of decay in western redcedar following P. weirii. Tales say that a person could receive its strength just by standing with their back to the tree.  Instead of laminated root rot, P. weirri in western redcedar expresses as a butt rot that can extend 2â3 m up the boles of living trees with the most extreme cases reaching 10 m. While the heart rot caused by the redcedar form of P. weirii does not kill the tree outright, it does severely weaken the lower portion of the bole which makes the tree highly susceptible to stem breakage. To prevent this, the harvester usually only harvests from trees which have not been stripped before. The wood is light, durable, and easy to work with. "Equally as useful as the wood is the bark of the cedar tree [see photos], in fact there is no single item so ubiquitous in the Indian household.  Arborvitae comes from the Latin for "tree of life"; coincidentally, Native Americans of the West coast also address the species as "long life maker".. Plant it in a moist site for it to flourish. Since 1971 it has stood at the northbound rest area on Interstate 5 near Arlington [C.J. The wood of this tree is resistant to decay and damage by insects. Elwes and Henry 1906-1913 at the Biodiversity Heritage Library (Photos).  This series of volumes, privately printed, provides some of the most engaging descriptions of conifers ever published. The sapwood and the heartwood are clearly separated. Bundles of gathered bark [Dr. Linda B. Brubaker]. Redcedar branches are very flexible and have good tensile strength. Western Red Cedar Tight Knot This #2 and better selected for appearance grade sample is a 6x18 Western Red Cedar beam we recently shipped. To appreciate the material, medical and spiritual value of cedar to Northwest Coast peoples, consider the diversity of uses cited by Gunther in her 1945 review of ethnobotany among surviving western Washington native peoples: "Throughout the whole Northwest the wood most extensively used by the Indians is cedar. Many cultivars are grown for ornament, and the species is managed for timber in Europe and New Zealand." Other uses of bark are still common for artistic or practical purposes. Family Cupressaceae . Bark red-brown or (particularly when exposed to sunlight) gray-brown, 10-25 mm thick, fibrous with shallow longitudinal fissures, easily peeled. The Disadvantages of Western Red Cedars. Located near the northwest shore of Lake Quinault north of Aberdeen, Washington, about 34 km (21 mi) from the Pacific Ocean, it was one-third the volume of the largest known tree, a giant sequoia named "General Sherman". USAGE: Internal / External Joinery More sizes and mouldings available. The furniture made of western red cedar wood can survive for over 100 years without damage. The Quileute string pecten shells on a small cedar limb as a dance rattle. Port-Orford-cedar, white or Oregon cedar, ginger pine (Peattie 1950); Hort. Thuja plicata, commonly called western red cedar or Pacific red cedar, giant arborvitae or western arborvitae, giant cedar, or shinglewood, is a species of Thuja, an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae native to western North America. An evergreen tree grown for its deep green foliage, the Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) is a versatile landscaping plant … The Skagit boil the ends of the leaves for coughs. The epithet plicata means "folded" and refers to the shape of the leaves, which resemble origami folds. Both the branches and bark rope have been replaced by modern fiber and nylon cordage among the aboriginal northwest coast peoples, though the bark is still in use for the other purposes mentioned above. see more; Synonyms Thuja gigantea Thuja lobbii. Other types of harvest (for planks, tinder, and other uses) leave different types of evidence of cultural modification. Western redcedar is generally the preferred material for totem poles. The process of cutting and burning would alternate until the tree was mostly penetrated through, and then careful tending of the fire would fell the tree in the best direction for handling. Woodworking tools dating between 8000 and 5000 years ago, such as carved antlers, were discovered in shell middens at the Glenrose site, near Vancouver, British Columbia. A tale of two cedars: International symposium on western redcedar and yellow-cedar.. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-828.Contains significant papers on ethnobotany, ecology and distribution, soil nutrient dynamics, dendrochronology, responses to fungal attack, mortality, climate change, wood extracts, growth, and responses to varied silvicultural treatments. 1824. Abstract: The high decay resistance of western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn) is due to the presence of toxic extractives, called tropolones, in the heartwood. It is found at the elevation range of sea level to a maximum of 2,290 m (7,510 ft) above sea level at Crater Lake in Oregon. It is associated with Douglas-fir and western hemlock in most places where it grows. Wildlife: The leaves of western red cedar are a major winter food for big game in the northern Rocky Mountains, and deer browse it all year along the coast. The "Quinault Lake Redcedar" was the largest known western redcedar in the world, with a wood volume of 17,650 cubic feet (500 m3). Pacific Coast Hemlock. Using Western Red Cedar for building a deck, fence, siding, or patio cover is … Radiocarbon test of earthquake magnitude at the Cascadia subduction zone. The power of the redcedar tree was said to be so strong a person could receive strength by standing with his or her back to the tree. That tree now lies in "Giant's Grave", a self-dug 'grave' created by the force of its own impact.. Details T. plicata is a large, evergreen, narrowly-pyramidal tree reaching an ultimate height of up to 35m. Among the Lummi, a boy takes the boughs he has used to rub himself before a guardian spirit quest and fastens them to the top of a cedar tree. Substitution. If the tree was to become canoes, then it would often be divided into sections and worked into rough canoe shapes before transport. obs.).  Trees growing in the open may have a crown that reaches the ground, whereas trees densely spaced together will exhibit a crown only at the top, where light can reach the leaves. B. In habitat, this tree is most likely to be confused with Cupressus nootkatensis. It has red-brown or gray-brown bark with thick longitudinal fissures that is easily peeled. Western Red Cedar Tight Knot This #2 and better selected for appearance grade sample is a 6x18 Western Red Cedar beam we recently shipped. A moderately large tree in the Long Island grove, Washington [C.J. Western Red Cedar exterior siding or cladding comes in a spectrum of patterns, including the one that is just right for your home’s style and your budget. Then some amount of cutting and splitting with stone adzes and mauls would be done, creating a wide triangular cut. The WWPA says, "Although select structural post and beams are graded primarily for strength properties, pieces of these grade are suitable for exposed uses where both strength and good appearance are desired."  The tallest known individual is the Willaby Creek Tree south of Lake Quinault, 195 feet (59 m) in height. The Squaxin make the herring rake of cedar. They are split fine and used for the foundation, then trimmed more carefully for the sewing element.  Plicatic acid is believed to be the main irritant and contact allergen responsible for provoking allergic reactions and asthma exaggeration and leading to occupational asthma in woodworkers that are exposed to western red cedar wood dust. Nature 353:156-158. Thuja plicata is among the most widespread trees in the Pacific Northwest. Product Description What is our sawn to size cedar? Many cultivars are grown for ornament, including those used for hedges. Sun foliage differs in that sprays are more flexible and less planar, with smallest shoots upturned and nearly round. To the modern world, redcedar "is an important timber tree. When the Great Spirit saw this, he declared that when the generous man died, a great redcedar tree will grow where he is buried, and that the cedar will be useful to all the people, providing its roots for baskets, bark for clothing, and wood for shelter.. , Thuja plicata is a large to very large tree, ranging up to 65 to 70 m (213 to 230 ft) tall and 3 to 7 m (9.8 to 23.0 ft) in trunk diameter. Van Pelt, Robert. Western red cedar, an ornamental and timber evergreen conifer of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), native to the Pacific coast of North America. Earle, 2009.08.14]. Western Red Cedar is a species of wood whose lumber can be used in a variety of ways. (Chambers 1993). The essential oil of western red cedar leaves contains natural compounds, such as Î±-thujone, Î²-thujone, fenchone, sabinene, terpinen-4-ol and beyerene, which have also been isolated from different other essential oils. In particular, many people specifically requested the tree and its brethren not to fall or drop heavy branches on the harvester, a situation which is mentioned in a number of different stories of people who were not sufficiently careful.  Thujaplicins, as other tropolones, are potent chelating agents and bind divalent metal ions. Gartner. They are green to yellow-green, ripening brown in fall about six months after pollination, and open at maturity to shed the seeds. A variety of hand mauls, wedges, chisels, and knives are also used. Western Red Cedar.  In Yuquot, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, tools dating 4000 to 3000 years old have been found. Robert Van Pelt, 1999.07.28). It is called the 'tree of life' by the Kakawaka'wakw and is still held with highest respect by all northwest coast peoples for its healing and spiritual powers. This effect lasts around a century even after the tree is felled. Western or Pacific redcedar, giant or western arborvitae, giant cedar, canoe cedar, shinglewood, is an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to Western North America. Lambert, A. Western red cedar is a tree that grows to a height of 125 ft (60 m) in moist soils in mixed coniferous forests. Western red cedar is an important tree in Native American cultures, and is the provincial tree emblem for British Columbia. For many purposes cedar bark is dyed with alder juice to give it a rich red-brown color. A legend amongst the Coast Salish peoples describes the origins of the western redcedar. It is not a true cedar of the genus Cedrus. Cedar limbs are used for openwork baskets by the Quinault and Squaxin, and also for weaving with vine maple sticks for fish weirs, and by the Snuqualmi for tying the poles of the summer house. Yamaguchi. Due to its light weight â 390 to 400 kg/m3 (24 to 25 lb/cu ft) dried â it is about 30% lighter than common boat building woods, such as mahogany. , The foliage forms flat sprays with scale-like leaves in opposite pairs, with successive pairs at 90 degrees to each other. Redcedar was used for a variety of ailments. USA: Alaska, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California; Canada: British Columbia, Alberta; at 0-1500 (2000) m elevation. Earle, 2011.07.06]. In Native American culture, the power of the western red cedar tree was said to be so strong that a person could receive its strength by merely standing with his back to the tree. Single limbs which have been worked to pliability are used to tie or sew the corners of wooden boxes and tie cross pieces in canoes.  After harvesting, the tree is not used for bark again, although it may later be felled for wood. Earle, 2019.05.16]. A lot of cedar is bought from iWood for making hot tubs. Eastern red cedar is toxic if taken internally. Its light weight, strength, and dark, warm sound make it a popular choice for guitar soundboards. The wood has been used for constructing housing and totem poles, and crafted into many objects, including masks, utensils, boxes, boards, instruments, canoes, vessels, houses, and ceremonial objects. In its unshredded state cedar bark is cut in strips of varying widths, the broader ones plaited to serve as dishes or as individual plates, as used by the Cowlitz, who also interweave cedar and maple to make larger platters. Atwater, B.F., M. Stuiver, and D.K. Grescoe, A. and B. Herger. Red cedar Description. The bark is ridged and dark reddish-brown. Whalers put piles of cedar branches under their beds to make themselves ready for the hunt and to ward off bad luck. Description The Excelsa is a beautiful Western Red cedar that reaches great heights and provides an excellent opportunity for privacy screens or hedges. General Species Description Western red-cedar is a large tree growing to a height of 60m (well-developed trunk).  It can be stored for quite some time as mold does not grow on it, and is moistened before unfolding and working. Earle, 2019.05.16]. 1984. , A redcedar over 71 m (233 ft) tall, 4.5 m (15 ft) in diameter, and over 700 years old stood in Cathedral Grove on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, before it was set on fire and destroyed by vandals in 1972. One fine stand is laced by a nature trail near where Highway 4 reaches the coast. In this legend, there was a generous man who gave the people whatever they needed. This 1987 photo shows the tree shortly after the entire surrounding stand had been clearcut. Non-traditionalists simply buy redcedar logs or lumber at mills or lumber yards, a practice that is commonly followed by most working in smaller sizes such as for masks and staves. In general, there are not many data for this species; the largest and presumably oldest trees represent complex growth patterns on many different buttresses, and accurately determining the age of most old trees would require a complete stump section and a lengthy exercise in measurement and crossdating--assuming that the central part of the tree had not rotted away, as it often has. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press. The Klallam boil cedar limbs for tuberculosis medicine. Therefore, tropolone content may be used as an indicator of decay resistance. The Skagit burned cedar limbs at night and waved them through the house to scare the ghost after death" (Gunther 1945). Today we are going to look at two of the most popular types of cedar, Western Red Cedar and Alaskan Yellow Cedar. jemail("earlecj", "gmail", "com"); 1991. British Columbia Forests & Range Tree Book: Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem, Volume II pp. The Quileute string dried clams and smelts for storage on strips of cedar bark. widely spread across western North America, from Alaska to California. The wood was worked primarily with the adze, which was preferred over all other tools, even ones introduced by colonizers. Western Red Cedar is naturally decay and bug resistant and it doesn’t “bleed” like other woods, which makes it perfect for stains, sealers, and paints. "Medicine: The Lummi chew the buds of cedar and swallow them for sore lungs, while the Cowlitz chew them for toothache, and the Skokomish boil them for a gargle. Western redcedar shows susceptibility of varying degrees to the following soil pathogens: Armillaria ostoyae, Fomitopsis pinicola, Heterobasidion annosum, Phaeolus schweinitzii, Phellinus weirii, Rhizinia undulata, and Postia sericeomollis.. The foliage is bifacially flattened and the foliar units (sprays) have many alternate lateral shoots in T. plicata; in C. nootkatensis the branchlets are 4-angled and the foliar units have fewer lateral shoots and, generally, are less symmetrical in form. Topographically, this represents a Coast Range-Cascade Range segment from southeastern Alaska to northwestern California (between 56° 30' and 40° 30' N latitude) and a Rocky Mountains segment from British Columbia to Idaho and Montana (between 54° 30' and 45° 50' N latitude). Rainier National Park, measured a few years before 1996 (Van Pelt 1996, with a 2018 email confirmation); this tree is believed to still be alive, though a remeasurement would be useful. The only part of this area where cedar is not used for basketry is on the Pacific coast from the Quinault northward, where spruce [Picea sitchensis] is substituted. The Quinault make an infusion of the bark and twigs for kidney trouble. I recommend the DeVoto Memorial Cedar Grove (. When First Nations people removed the bark from cedars, it left a scar - which is considered a CMT. The leaves have white markings on the undersides of the flat foliage sprays. Today bark rope making is a lost art in many communities, although it is still practiced for decoration or art in a few places. Description; Applications; Suppliers; Western red cedar is a large softwood that grows in British Columbia and some of the nearby western states of the USA including Washington, Oregon, Montana and Idaho. Western Red Cedar’s flame spread rating and smoke developed classification compare well with the ratings of many other species of both softwood and hardwood.  Thujaplicins serve as natural fungicides, and thereby prevent the wood from rotting. It has remarkable strength. In this article, I describe forty facts about the plant and the importance of the “tree of life” in the local culture. Until late July of 2016, the largest known was the Quinault Lake Cedar, located closely north of Quinault Lake, which once had an estimated wood volume of 500 cubic meters (if you discount the enormous hollow center, where I once stood with over 20 other people), with a dbh of 594 cm and height of 53.0 meters. In larger boats it is often used in sandwich construction between two layers of epoxy resin and/or fibreglass or similar products. : Lawson cypress (Welch and Haddow 1993). Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Western Redcedar has been reported as a sensitizer. It holds its deep dark green color year-round and has a wonderful scent. It holds its deep dark green color year-round and has a wonderful scent. Tolerant of dry, windy conditions once established. Description: This native conifer's strong pyramidal form and gray-red fibrous bark are an appreciated site throughout Pacific Northwest gardens. The western red cedar can grow in cold, mild, and moist locations and also in shaded areas that have a nutrient-rich soil.  The tree is shade-tolerant and able to reproduce under dense shade. Like its relative Thuja occidentalis and many other conifer species, Thuja plicata is grown as an ornamental tree, and for screens and hedges, throughout the world in gardens and parks. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit for red cedar dust of 2.5 mg/m3 as a time-weighted average over 8 hours. It should not be confused with the eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana, or the Lebanon cedar, Cedrus libani, which are unrelated species. A wide variety of forms, sizes, and colours is available.. Saplings do not produce the chemical, causing them to often develop rot at an early stage, causing some trees to grow with a somewhat hollow trunk, as the tree moves to heal itself as it grows. 1997).  In addition to growing in lush forests and mountainsides, western redcedar is also a riparian tree, growing in many forested swamps and streambanks in its range. Adaptable to high pH (alkaline) soils. It is valued for its distinct appearance, aroma, and its high natural resistance to decay, being extensively used for outdoor construction in the form of posts, decking, shingles, and siding. The distinctive cones are specifically oval shaped, not globes, and have between 1 and 12 … Found on various substrates, commonly on moist sites, in mixed coniferous forests (Chambers 1993).  It is commonly used for the framing and longwood in lightweight sail boats and kayaks.  Because of these natural defenses, it has been suggested that western redcedar may serve as a suitable alternative to other conifers when regenerating a site affected by these pathogens. P. sericeomollis is responsible for brown cubical butt and pocket rot of cedar. "The limbs of the cedar tree are stripped of their leaves, soaked in water, and twisted into rope. Van Pelt also reports the second-tallest tree on record, 69.7 m, in a study plot at Carbon River, Mount Rainier National Park (Van Pelt email 2018.07.19). Despite being over a century old, they are generally accurate, and are illustrated with some remarkable photographs and lithographs. For its weight it is quite strong but can be brittle. A spray of foliage, 15 cm long, lower side [C.J. Analyzing tropolone content of western redcedar increment cores is a useful way to assess decay resistance of standing trees. "Redcedar has been called 'the cornerstone of northwest coast Indian culture' and the large-scale use of its wood and bark delineates the cultural boundary of the northwest coast peoples within its range. Lummi men, burying a corpse, chew cedar tips to avoid nausea. Cones and foliage on a tree in Olympia, Washington [C.J. Earle, 2002.06.15]. Thuja plicata, commonly called western red cedar or Pacific red cedar, giant arborvitae or western arborvitae, giant cedar, or shinglewood, is a species of Thuja, an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae native to western North America.  The fifth known largest was the Kalaloch Cedar in the Olympic National Park, at 12,370 cubic feet (350 m3), until it was destroyed by storm in March 2014. Boxes, including those with bent sides [see photo], and dugouts [canoes] are of cedar. Iron-based fasteners can stain and discolor the wood, especially in the presence of moisture. Western red cedar will remain dimensionally stable under most weather conditions and is not prone to shrinkage or swelling. Can be clear finished or stained. Hardy to Zone 6 (cold hardiness limit between -23.2°C and -17.8°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001). Since redcedars lose their lower branches as all tall trees do in the rainforest, the harvester may climb 10 m (33 ft) or more into the tree by this method. , Most authorities, both in Canada and the United States cite the English name in two words as western redcedar, or occasionally hyphenated as western red-cedar, to indicate it is not a true cedar (Cedrus), but it is also cited as western red cedar in some popular works. Branches arching, branchlets pendent in planar (slightly concave downward) sprays 15-50 cm long × 5-15 cm wide, e… Many cultivars are grown for ornament, including those used for hedges. A popular choice for guitar soundboards wads of shredded cedar bark is folded carried. Soft but extremely durable wood is light, with a frog in throat. Giant redcedar, shinglewood, canoe cedar ( Peattie 1950 ) ; Hort had been.! Boil an infusion of cedar bark is dyed with alder juice to give it a popular for! 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[ 35 ] Olympic National was! Use of redcedar [ Dr. Linda B. Brubaker ] their leaves, resemble... Could receive its strength just by standing with their back to the continuous use of redcedar [ Dr. B.! Illustrated with some remarkable photographs and lithographs this was mentioned by Swan also! And even grain, its flexibility and strength in proportion to its weight slightly., species of conifer in the round to the village, 15 cm long, side... The ends of the genus Cedrus mauls, wedges, chisels, and two cuts made..., J.D., J.J. Morrell, and they have cinnamon-red or brownish bark into shape stripping too much bark kill. Has stood at the ends of the surrounding trees 60m ( well-developed trunk ),. Modified trees ) that are found throughout the coast Christina Lake, British Anthropological! Tends to have buttressed base in 1916 the drive-through tunnel was cut pole at the Biodiversity Heritage Library Photos. 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