The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. Detestation, contempt, ferocity and vengeance became marked features of the British in India in the post-mutiny period. The annexation of Indian territory and the rigorous taxation on Indian land contributed to a revolt against British rule that began in 1857. Content Guidelines 2. The Revolt of 1857 is also called as Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Insurrection, and the First War of Independence. Scholars have different views on the Revolt of 1857. Modern nationalism was yet unknown in India. Revolt of 1857 Causes and Results . The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of … Their attempt was to prove that the colonial rule, if not welcomed, was not detested, as many Indian historians argue. If we do not consider any historical event on the basis of its success then the revolt of 1857 A.D. was never a tragedy. … L.E.R. There is no unanimity among scholars regarding the nature of the revolt of 1857 and a debate took place between 1950-1960 focusing attentions on three perspectives: sepoy mutiny, national struggle or first war of independence or a manifestation of feudalist revival. The Indians too did not lag behind in maintaining social distance. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. Nana's troops were responsible for the massacre at Kanpur. It did not spread to South India and most of Eastern and Western India. Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. The 7th Awadh Regiment which defied its officers on May 3 met with a similar fate. He was to look after the formulation of the British policies in India. Out of the fifteen, eight were appointed by the crown and the rest were to be appointed by the court of the directors. The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. Answers:The British made various changes in their policies after the revolt of 1857. Once the Indian people overthrew British power from an area, they did not know what sort of power to create in its place. They gave up the idea of the ruthless expan­sionist policy of their territorial boundaries in and outside India. By the end of 1859, British authority over India was fully reestablished, but the Revolt had not been in vain. The strong opposition to the social legislation especially coming from the orthodox elements in both the Hindu and the Muslim community put the British on the defensive. In this article, we are going to see all the aspects of the Revolt of 1857 in Hindi. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. History of Freedom Movement in India. It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. A very disturbing feature of post-mutiny period in India was the growth of social distance between the Hindus and Muslims which ultimately led to communalization of social life and partition of India on communal lines. This … Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. On the other hand, there are also scholars who view the Revolt of 1857 … Defiant to the very end and refusing to surrender, he escaped to Nepal early in 1859, never to be heard of again. The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the history of India. Nana Sahib was defeated at Kanpur. Why the revolt of 1857 failed: The British had the support of strong government in England. The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. Ans: The ‘Paika Bidroha’ (Paika rebellion) of 1817 led by Bakshi Jagabandhu [Bidyadhar Mohapatra] in Khurda of Odisha. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. The rebels had succeeded in sowing the seeds of nationalism among the Indians. The British who were quite aloof in the beginning realized their mistake and changed their policy with 1861 Indian Council Act. P.E. Most of them fought with such ancient weapons as pikes and swords. The Royal Princes were captured and butchered on the spot. By 1859, Kunwar Singh, Bakht Khan, Khan Bahadur Khan of Bareilly, Rao Sahib brother of Nana Sahib, and Maulavi Ahmadullah were all dead, while the Begum of Avadh was compelled to hide in Nepal. 5 the East India Company were impoverishing and ruining the peasantry. The revolt started as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) in the service of the English East India Company in Meerut, a town northeast of Delhi. In fact, the Revolt of 1857 played an important role in bringing the Indian people together and imparting to them the consciousness of belonging to one country. The Company … Suppressed the revolt at Arrah in August 1857. The British crown agreed to provide employment to the Indians in the bureaucratic structure of the times, which was denied previously. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! There was communication gap and they lacked consensus. Tantia Tope escaped into the jungles of Central India where he carried on bitter and brilliant guerrilla warfare until April 1859 when he was betrayed by a zamindar friend and captured while asleep. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. Political Causes: The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large … An anxious conscious attempt on the part of the British to minimize the grievances of Indians and to restrict it only to a section of army’s revolt. It began on 10th may 1857 in Meerut with the mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as the British used to call them. These imperatives guided British policy … Results of the revolt: The great uprising of 1857 was an important landmark in the history of modern India. The direct effects of the Revolt of 1857 may be summed up in the following words: Firstly, the Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organization to rule over a country. Result of the revolt: the revolt of 18857 had led to the end of company’s rule in India. Privacy Policy3. The British government was … Leaders like Nanasaheb Peshwa, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Kunwar Singh and the Nawab of Awadh had joined hands with Tatya Tope, an efficient military commander; Rango bapuji, an accomplished planner, and Azimullah Khan, a lawyer and a journalist to lead the revolt. What we notice in this period was abandonment of social and educational welfare measures by the British purposefully and willingly. They were also equipped with superior military techniques. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. In the place of the President of the Board of Control, the Secretary of State for India was appointed. The Secretary of State for India was assisted and helped by a 15-member body of India Council. At the end, we may conclude by agreeing with Tarachand: “imperi­alist Britain treated India as a satellite whose main function was to sweat and labour for the master, to sub-serve its economy and to enhance the glory and prestige of the empire”. There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. Surender Nath Sen is of the view that: “The mutiny became a revolt and assumed a political character when the mutineers of Meerut placed themselves under the king of Delhi and a section of the landed aristocracy and civil population declared, in his favour. It began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys) employed by the British East India … Any three political causes of the Revolt Were as follows:- i) Annexation of Satara, Jhansi and Nagpur under the Doctrine of Lapse. It shook the foundations of the British Empire in India and at some points it seemed as though the British rule would end for all time to come. Chakravarty, Gautam. Religionist, Judicial and Diplomatic Effects: Queen Victoria’s proclamation of 1 November, 1858 guaranteed freedom of faith and equal treatment to all Indians. The British government was now established. The peasants destroyed revenue records and money-lenders' books, and overthrown the new zamindars, became passive not knowing what to do next. Military revolt. The revolt of 1857 is an important marker in Indian History, and is an area where questions have repeatedly featured in the Civil Services (Prelims) and Civil Services (Mains) Examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). Revolt of 1857 in Assam. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. It was a result of the anger against the government. It was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Companys rule. The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. In the sphere of judiciary, the Sadar courts and Crown’s Supreme Court were amalgamated into High Courts which were established in the presidency towns of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. Sometimes they behaved more like a riotous mob than a disciplined army. Revolt of 1857 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. It was a result of the anger against the government. The Revolt of 1857 covered the way for the future struggle for freedom in India. Mention any three political causes of the Revolt. For example, the Begum of Avadh quarreled with Maulavi Ahmadullah and the Mughal princes with the sepoy-generals. It paved the way for the rise of the modern national movement. The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. TOS4. Indian sepoys and people were short of modern weapons and other materials of war. It was planned to begin the revolt across the nation against the East India Company on 31st May, 1857. In the sphere of diplomatic ties between India and Britain, now there was a change and the British began to show greater interest in the internal development of India than in foreign affairs. On the other hand, Rest states had actively participated in the revolt of 1857 against British rule. The results of the 1857 revolt may be subdivided as: (iii) Religious, judicial and diplomatic effects, and. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. According to Sir John Seale, the Revolution of 1857 was a rebellion of the selfish and not national soldiers, which had no leadership or support.Sir John Lawrence has described it as a military rebellion, and the main reason for this is the fat cartridge. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of Independence against the British. It is also known as India’s First war of independence. They could maintain their hold over India by force and by playing one section of the society against the other. Some Muslims also supported British. The Revolt was suppressed. India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown. The self-confidence of the British and their plans for the rapid westernization of India through social reforms were shattered. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. The most significant result of the mutiny was the transfer of power from a trading company to a sovereign power of Britain by the Government of India Act of 1858. The 1857 Revolt remained concentrated in the Central India and some parts of north-Western India. Patriotism meant love of one's small locality or region or at most one's state. The revolt of 1857 was an uncontrolled rebellion against the rule of British east India Company in India. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. It was to a great extent a popular revolt led by exiled princes and displaced landlords. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. THE REVOLT OF 1857APARNA.P 2. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. He was put to death after a hurried trial on 15 April 1859. Results of the Revolt of 1857: The Revolt of 1857 served as a rude and caustic reminder to the British that they were alien in India and because of the very nature of their domination is colonial and exploitative, could not reconcile the Indians to their rule. The most significant result of the uprising of 1857 was the end of the rule of the East India Company and assumption of the Government of India directly by the Crown. The Queen made it clear that there was to be no distinction between one individual and another on the pretext of race, religion, sex and creed. The nature of the 1857 event has become so emotive that it gave scope to multiple perspectives. They failed to evolve unity of action. United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. The seed of communal discord planted by the English in India sprouted … Result of revolt of 1857. Indian Rebellion of 1857A 1912 map of Northern IndiaThe Revolt of 1857-59 showingthe centres of rebellionincluding the principal ones:Meerut, Delhi, Cawnpore(Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi, andGwalior.Date 10 May 1857 - 1859Location India (cf. When the British started tinkering with the revenue system in 1803, the farming community of Odisha rose in rebellion. The reign of Dalhousie had been quite momentous for the Britishers as he had pursued a policy of territorial aggrandisement and extended the dominions of the empire. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. Further, the British tried to portray civil disturbances as the actions of selfish vested interests of the landholders and the princes. ii) Queen Victoria issued a Proclamation promising to look after the welfare of the Indian people. revolt of 1857 Image Source: bharatmatamandir.in/files/2012/12/Mutiny-of-1857.jpg. It is believed that it is very difficult to make generalization of the 1857 event as the response of the people varied from one area to another and as such it is argued that the revolt of 1857 was not one movement but many. Consider the following statements about Revolt of 1857: 1. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In India, The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes), The Revolt of 1857 in India: Causes, Spread and Other Details, The Revolt of 1857 —the First War of Independence, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. The rebel leaders lacked experience and coordination. Because of this the revolt of 1857 failed in India. William Taylor and Eye. Result of the Revolt of 1857 in Hindi. The infamous massacre related with Nana Saheb took place at Bibi Ghar, Kanpur. The “British Parliament” passed another Act in 1858 and exchanged the forces of the “East India Company” to the “British Crown”.. 2. VD Sarvarkar was the first person to opine Revolt of 1857 as the first 'Indian War of Independence'. Though the uprising of 1857 failed, it had its importance. As a result of the revolt the two forces were united and called king’s forces and one-third of it should consist of the Europeans. The Revolt of 1857 took place one hundred years after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The Emperor was tried and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862. On 24 April 1857, some soldiers stationed at Meerut also refused to use the cartridges. The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of colonial rule. While in the first century, i.e., from 1757 to 1857, the British crown indirectly ruled India, in the second century, i.e., from 1858 to 1947, the British crown directly ruled India through the Viceroy appointed by the Monarch. Revolt of 1857 in Assam. Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. The Battle of Plassey was an important stepping stone for the British rule in India as the British had overcome the French in India, and the state of … Ashok Mehta in his book The Great Rebellion expressed the view that the revolt was national in character. 1857)ResultRebellion Suppressed,Final collapse of the Mughal Empire;end of Company rule in … ii) Denial of pension to Nana … A He was commander-in-chief of the army of Nana … The results of the great revolt of 1857 A.D. had been far-reaching. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. As we have seen, the rapacious policies followed by . ...The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion and the Sepoy Mutiny.The many names are the result of the conflict's continuing importance to India's national sense of identity. End of Company Rule: The political result of this great revolt was the end of company’s rule in India. These Sepoys were drawn mainly from the peasant population of North and North-West India. Making the “British Queen” as their “Sovereign Paramount” the kings were allowed to pass their land to their own heirs or the adopted sons.. 3. The Revolt of 1857 was the first sign that the Indians wanted to end British rule and were ready to stand united for this cause. The Revolt of 1857 Essay Sample. Some of them are as follows: The British Crown took the direct responsibility of governance in India. His salary and allowances were to be paid out of the Indian … They were suspicious and jealous of one another and often indulged in suicidal quarrels. The End of the Company’s Rule. The administrative apparatus in India was centralized effectively due to the improvement in communications. The soldiers from Punjab supported the Company. The British crown reinstated the Taluqdars of Oudh to their old positions. The Revolt of 1857 is also famous as the Sepoy Mutiny or the Frist War of Independence for India. Since 1970, the historical perspective has shifted from the study of ‘sepoy mutiny’ or ‘national revolt’ to the examination of social roots of the revolt by understanding specific area studies. The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. Revolt Of 1857 questions and answers for PSC exams. J.R. Holmes expressed the opinion that it was a conflict between civilization and barbarism. They reduced the Brahmins from the army and recruited Gurkhas, Sikhs, Jats and Rajputs of the Punjab. Topics: Indian Rebellion of 1857, Mughal Empire, British Empire Pages: 4 (1360 words) Published: August 10, 2012. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. यद्यपि … The British crown gave up the policy of subordinate isolation and advocated a policy of subordinate union in respect of native states. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. The sepoys were brave and selfless but they were also ill-disciplined. Though the revolt had failed, historian like Sir Legal Greffin stated that “The revolt of 1857 A.D. swept the Indian sky clear of many clouds”. The Revolt of 1857 also regarded as India’s Ist War of Independence was a significant event in Indian history. The Three results of the Revolt of 1857. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. This Act of 1858 completed the process initiated by the Charter Act of 1853. United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. The cumulative effect of British expansionist policies, economic exploitation and administrative innovations over the years had adversely affected the positions of all rulers of Indian states, sepoys, zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans, pundits, maulvis, etc. 3. John Lawrence, Outran, Havelock, Neil, Campbell, and Hugh Rose were some of the British commanders who earned military fame in the course of the revolt. Cause of the revolt, political cause of the revolt, place where the revolt began. There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. The Board of Directors and the Board of Control of India was abolished and the office of the Secretary of State for India was created. The cartridges that were used in the rifles had to be bitten open. Watch Queue Queue In the sphere of social relations, the gulf between the Europeans and the Indians not only widened but animosity and hatred between the two social groups became marked, and there was definite social estrangement between Indians and Europeans. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. Fighting in some places continued well into 1858, but the British were ultimately able to establish control. This incident sparked off a general mutiny among the sepoys of Meerut. The Revolt was suppressed. The revolt of 1857 originated with the mutiny of the Sepoys. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Ans: Changes in the policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857: (i) British Crown took over the control of administration − The British Parliament passed an Act in 1859, under which, the powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown. The post-mutiny period also witnessed setback to Muslim renaissance and efforts of modernity. Contradicting the above views of nationalist motivated perceptions, R.C. There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? Before the revolt of 1857, the army of the British in India was divided into two major divisions – king’s forces and company’s troops. Madras, Bombay, Bengal and the Western Punjab remained undisturbed. India's First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. In the post-Revolt period, to maintain supremacy in India, British followed the policy of communal disharmony. All the British historians, in particular. The major impact was the introduction of Government of India act which abolished the rule of British East India Company and marked the beginning of British raj that bestowed powers in the hands of the British government to rule India directly through … The artillery section was exclusively kept under the British. The revolt of 1857 shook the foundation of British East India Company and disclosed their inefficiency in handling the Indian administration. Since the time it erupted, all historians have been engaged in the futile exercise of labelling the Uprising of 1857 with some descriptive word or other- such as mutiny , revolt , revolution , national Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. All the ruling chiefs and kings were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. 9. The following were the results of the Revolt of 1857:- i) The rule of the East India Company came to an end. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. Indian sepoys and other revolt participants were also poorly organized. They could pass on their kingdom to their heirs; … What began as a fight for religion ended as a war of independence for there is not the slightest doubt that the rebels wanted to get rid of the alien government and restore the old order of which the king of Delhi was the rightful representative”. As if it is not sufficient, orthodoxy, religious superstitions, communal, caste and religious discrimination began to be practiced by the Indians. The uprisings in different parts of the country were completely uncoordinated. Cambridge UK: … What was the role of Tatia Tope in 1857 mutiny? The Revolt of 1857 was a major outbreak but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company. Reese viewed it as a religious war against Christianity. Revolt of 1857 – Causes The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. 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