The majority of the people are members of the Yoruba ethnic group. [13] Oyo led a successful campaign into Mahi territory north of Dahomey in the late 18th century. The Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadan and the Ibarapas, comprises the indigenes of Oyo state, which all make up the Yoruba family in Africa. [11], In 1823 Dahomey was reported to have raided villages that were under the protection of Oyo for slaves due to the high demand for them. J.B. Wood, 8 November 1887, as cited by Law R.. Afolayan, Funso. The Oyo Mesi did not enjoy an absolute power either. Oyo state was one of the three states carved out of the old western state of Nigeria on the 3rd of February 1976 during states creation exercise which originally included Osun state but was later divided in 1991. History. [52] The center of Yoruba power moved further south to Ibadan, a Yoruba war camp settled by Oyo commanders in 1830. It came into existence with the break up of the old Western State of Nigeria during the state creation exercise in 1976 and it originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. History of Ogbomosoland P (also Ogbomoṣo) is a city in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. Brief History of Okeho [/center] According to a reliable source Okeho is a small town in northern Nigeria fringes of Oyo state, is a microcosm of Nigeria. While the Oyo Mesi wielded political influence, the Ogboni represented the popular opinion backed by the authority of religion, and therefore the views of the Oyo Mesi could be moderated by the Ogboni. At the beginning, the people were concentrated in metropolitan Oyo. [46], After the death of Awole, there was a scramble for the throne by numerous contenders; some were reported to have spent less than six months on the throne; there was also a period of interregnum of almost twenty years where the various factions could not agree on a candidate. Afonja took cause with Awole when the latter commanded him to attack Alaafin Abiodun's maternal home, Iwere-Ile. Oyo State, popularly referred to as the “Pace Setter” is one of the 36 States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. 2 and Table 1). [24] Oyo was known to punish disobedience by wholesale slaughter of the erring community, as it accomplished in Allada in 1698.[12]. [15] Light cavalry on smaller indigenous ponies was armed with throwing spears or bows. It is bounded by other states such as Osun state (east), Kwara state (north), Ogun state (south) and the republic of Benin (west). [18], With its cavalry, Oyo campaigned successfully in conquest and suppression over great distances. Oyo state is a homogenous state because it is highly occupied by the Yoruba ethnic group such as the Oyos, the Ogbomosos, the Ibadans, the Ibarapas and the Oke-oguns. Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau. Gaha's treachery was not ended until 1774 during the reign of Alaafin Abiodun, the fifth Alaafin he served. This Arm is headed by the State governor assisted by the commissioners who the governor appoints to head different departments of the State. Ajaka was deposed, because he lacked Yoruba military virtue and allowed his sub-chiefs too much independence. Chief Christopher Adebayo Alao-Akala is a significant political gladiator. Justice MUKTAR ABIMBOLA is the present chief Judge of the State. The Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadan and the Ibarapas, comprises the indigenes of Oyo state, which all make up the Yoruba family in Africa. Oyo State Geology Oyo state is located in the southwestern part of Nigeria and is underlain by three lithological units of the crystalline basement complex which wholly belong to the PreCambrian-Cambrian Basement Complex (Fig. The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, … [26], The Oyo Empire was not a purely hereditary monarchy, nor was it an absolute one. [12] The Oyo often demanded tribute in slaves. Read More. The majority of the people are members of the Yoruba ethnic group. [35] Cavalry was the long arm of the Oyo Empire. [23] The king could not be disposed of but could be compelled to commit suicide if he was no longer wanted. [11] Each province was supervised by a governor appointed directly by the Alaafin of Oyo. Oba Atiba sought to preserve what remained of Oyo by placing on Ibadan the duty of protecting the capital from the Ilorin in the north and northeast. Provincial forces were thus grouped into two armies, under the Onikoyi and the Okere for the east and west side of the river respectively. [1] It reached the height of its power in the 18th century. The Yoruba allowed autonomy to the southeast of metropolitan Oyo, where the non-Yoruba areas could act as a buffer between Oyo and Imperial Benin. The events that led to the secession of Ilorin began in 1793. Oyo State was carved out of the Western State in 1976. Celebrated regularly, it would retain much significance among the Yoruba long after the fall of Oyo. The State Governor, Engr. There are also tertiary institutions located in the state that forms part of its economy, such as: University of Ibadan (Ibadan), Ladoke Akintola university of Technology (Ogbomoso), Lead University (Ibadan), Atiba University (Oyo), Ajayi Crowther University (Oyo) and other various institutions cut across the state. Shillington, Kevin. NMA Oyo State has over 2,000 members who are medical practitioners at the primary, secondary and tertiary health institutions offering healthcare services to the good citizens of Oyo State. The association is committed, through its members, to improving the state of the health sector in Nigeria. [7], Under his successor, Abipa, the Yoruba repopulated Oyo-Ile and rebuilt the original capital. [11] By the end of the 16th century, the Ewe and Aja states of modern Benin were paying tribute to Oyo. [25] The government was able to provide unity for a vast area through a combination of local autonomy and imperial authority. [46], As Oyo tore itself apart via political intrigue, its vassals began taking advantage of the situation to press for independence. And the political history of Oyo state is not complete without some chapters to … Forces inside metropolitan Oyo were commanded by the Bashorun, leading member of the Oyo Mesi. [48], Ilorin then besieged Offa and started raiding, burning and pillaging villages in Oyo, eventually destroying the capital Oyo-Ile in 1835. Oyo became the southern emporium of the Trans-Saharan trade. This was done by sending Bashorun (The prime minister) to present either an empty calabash or a dish of parrot's eggs to him and pass a sentence of rejection, known as Awon Eniyan Koo (i.e. Oyo State - History. The head of the council of Oyo Mesi, the Bashorun, consulted the Ifa oracle prior to the royal succession for approval from the gods. Jul 7, 2017. [32] Each chief had a state duty to perform at court every morning and afternoon. The Oyo army was able to attack defensive fortifications, but it was harder to supply an army, and they withdrew when supplies ran out. [30] They carried red and green fans as credentials of their status. Clapperton's party recorded passing numerous Oyo villages burned by the Fulani of Ilorin while Majotu had also sought the help of the English king and the Oba of Benin in putting down the Ilorin rebellion. After the destruction of Oyo-Ile, the capital was moved further south, to Ago d’Oyo. Oba Atiba sought to preserve what remained of Oyo by placing on Ibadan the duty of protecting the capital from the Ilorin in the north and northeast. Oyo state consists of thirty-three (33) local government areas. History of Ogbomosoland P (also Ogbomoṣo) is a city in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. [51] After gaining its independence, Dahomey began raiding the corridor. Oyo State covers approximately an area of 28,454 square kilometers and is ranked 14th by size. Ibadan which is the largest city in the state possesses industries such as a brewery, cannery, publishing industry, tobacco processing factory, and motor-vehicle assembly plant. It is made up of 33 members voted by the people of the 33 constituencies in the State. [7] A new capital, Oyo-Igboho, was constructed, and the original became known as Old Oyo. They constituted the Electoral Council and possessed legislative powers. The town was founded in the mid-17th century by Ogunlola, a brave hunter of Ibariba descent. Ajaka returned to the throne thoroughly more warlike and oppressive. The Sabiganna of Iganna origin is traceable to Adebiyi, one of the grandsons of Oduduwa known as Onisabe. While the Alaafin of Oyo was supreme overlord of the people, he was not without checks on his power. All Nigeria Info, formerly iDONSABI was founded May, 2016. History of Iganna Town. [9] Oyo never encompassed all Yoruba-speaking people, but it was the most populous kingdom in Yoruba history. [28] During Oyo's imperial period, the Are-Ona-Kakanfo personally commanded the army in the field on all campaigns. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Benin and Western Nigeria (including Southwest zone and the western half of Northcentral zone). Oyo never encompassed all Yoruba-speaking people, but it was the most populous kingdom in Yoruba history. [29] Aside from their duties in respect to the worship of the earth, they were responsible for judging any case dealing with the spilling of blood. Agricultural products such as cassava, maize(corn), yam, plantain, kola nuts, palm kernel, palm oil, beans, millets, tobacco, cocoa, cotton, indigo and fruits of various species. Top six of such places are: Oyo State has eighteen (18) Local Government Areas grouped under the three zones. [47] Awole eventually committed ritual suicide. [33] Because its main geographic focus was north of the forest, Oyo enjoyed easier farming and thus a steady growth in population. Oyo State, popularly referred to as the “Pace Setter” is one of the 36 States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. [14], After the destruction of Oyo-Ile, the capital was moved further south, to Ago d'Oyo. It was formed in 1976 from the former Western State, and originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. "The History of Dahomy, An Inland Kingdom of Africa" London,1793,p.229, . The origins of the Oyo Empire lie with Oranyan (also known as Oranmiyan), the last prince of the Yoruba Kingdom of Ile-Ife (Ife). [25] In return, all sub-rulers had to pay homage to the Oba and renew their allegiance at annual ceremonies. The university, whose conception began in 1987 during the administration of Adetunji Olurin, the then Military Governor of Oyo State, came with the first challenge as Osun State … [28], The Alaafin of Oyo appointed certain religious and government officials, who were usually eunuchs. Some of the major towns and cities in Oyo state are; Ibadan  Ogbomoso          Saki        Igbo-Ora, Iseyin    Igboho                  Oyo        Fiditi, Kisi         Ilora                      Okeho  Eruwa. They were, however, supervised by Ajele. After this period, the city’s region started to shrink, to cover just the Western Region (1963 – 1967); Western State and old Oyo State (1976 – 1991), before the creation of Osun State, (1976 – 1991). Ajaka was restored after Sango's death. MICHAEL ADEYOMO ADEYEMI is the present speaker of the State Assembly. Between June and October 1754 alone, two Alaafins had been forced to commit suicide by Gaha. The Ogboni was a very powerful secret society composed of aristocratic freemen noted for their age, wisdom and importance in religious and political affairs. Seyi Makinde stated this at the. Although the State is home to various ethnic groups, it is predominantly filled with the Yoruba. [49] Oyo immediately demanded a huge tribute from King Gezo for the unauthorized incursion, to which Gezo dispatched his Brazilian viceroy, Chacha Francisco Félix de Sousa, to the Alaafin at Oyo to make peace. Oyo could not maintain its cavalry army in the south but could raid at will. The Egba and Egbado tributaries were allowed, like their Yoruba counterparts, to rule themselves. He also attempted to get the Ijaye to … During the colonial period, the Yorubas were one of the most urbanized groups in Africa. The State Governor, Engr. The index of urbanization in 1950 was close to that of the United States, excluding Ilorin. [7] After this, Oba Orompoto led attacks to obliterate the Nupe to ensure Oyo was never threatened by them again. Being colonized by Britain, Nigeria, a West African Country even with her own many ethnic groups, became an English-speaking country and her official language, English. [25] The Oyo Mesi selected the Alaafin. The site is remembered as Ajaka. [23], The empire's third layer was the Egbado Corridor southwest of Yorubaland. Abiodun was subsequently murdered by his own son Awole, who subsequently ascended his father's throne. The Yoruba of Oyo went through an interregnum of 80 years as an exiled dynasty after its defeat by the Nupe. The people created a government that established its power over a vast empire. [29] The leader of the Ogboni, the Oluwo, had the unqualified right of direct access to the Alaafin of Oyo on any matter. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. Senator Abiola Ajimobi is the present governor of Oyo State with Chief Moses Alake as the deputy governor. [22] This was the hub of the empire, where the Yoruba spoke the Oyo dialect. [8] During the 17th century, Oyo began a long stretch of growth, becoming a major empire. [30] The hundreds of Ilari were divided evenly between the sexes. History. It was founded in the mid 17th century. [46] This power vacuum led to the ascendancy of powerful military and regional commanders like Adegun, the Onikoyi and Solagberu, the Otun Are-Ona Kakanfo. Not long after the war was won, Oranmiyan had a son, Ajuwon Ajaka; much later Arabambi was born by the woman from Tapa (Nupe). [16] Dahomey's army also built fortifications such as trenches, which forced the Oyo army to fight as infantry. The history of Broadcasting in Nigeria is connected to the era of colonization in the country. Oyo state is traversed by the Yoruba Hills in The Oyo Empire, like many empires before it, used both local and tributary forces to expand its domains. The Egba, under the leadership of a war chief called Lishabi, massacred the Ilari stationed in their area and drove off an Oyo punitive force. A college of education, Oyo State College of Education, Oyo. But then, something happened! Ajibade/Alabata/Elekuru, Akinyele/Isabiyi/Irepodun, Ayede/Alugbo/Koloko, Egbeda, Erunmu, Olodan/ Ajinogbo, Olode /Alakia, Olodo ii, Olode i,  Olodo/ Kumapayi  I, Olubadan Estate, Osegere/ Awaye, Owobaale/Kasumu, Ajaawa  I, Ajaawa  II, Ayede, Ayetoro, Idewure, Lagbedu, Mowolowo/Iwo Ate, Odo Oba, Opete, Otamokun, Ajara/Opeodu, Lagun, ofa Igbo, Apatere/Kuffi/ Ogunbode/Ogo, ArulogunEhin/kelebe, Ejioku /Igbon /Ariku, Lagelu Market/ Kajola/Gbena,  Lalupon  I, Lalupon II, Lalupon iii, Ogunjana/Olowode/Ogburo, Ogunremi/Ogunsina, Oyedeji/Olode/Kutayi, Sagbe  / Pabiekun, Ayegun, Idi Iroko/Ikereku, Idi Osan /EgbedaAtuba, OdoOnaNla,  Muslim /Ogbere, Okanhinde /Latunde,  Onipe, Olomi/Olunde, Olonde / Aba  Nla, Orisunbare/OjoEkun, Akanran/Olorunda, Araromi /Aperin, Badeku, GbadaEfon, Odi Odeyale/ Odi Aperin, Ogbere, OgbereTioya, Ojoku/Ajia, Olorunsogo, Oremeji/Agugu, Agboye/Molete, Ajagba, Oluajo, Alaodi/Modeke, Apaara, Apinni, Balogun, Jabata, Oke Apo, Oluajo, Owode/Araromi, Ajokidero/Akewugberu, Iyaji ,Akeetan, Fasola/Soku, Iseke , Isokun, Ojongbodu, Opapa, Owode, Pakoyi/Idode, Agunpopo  I, Agunpopo II, Agunpopo III, Aremo, Ashipai,  Ashipa II, Ashipa III Bashorun, OkeAfin I, OkeAfin II, Aare, Alepata, Bonni, IgiIsubu, Igbope /Iyeye I, Igbope/Iyeye  II, Onibode I, Onibode II,  Onibode III, Onigboho /alomo /Okere, Agbonle, Ago Amodu I, Ago Amodu II, Ogbooro  I, Ogbooro II, OjeOwode  I, OjeOwode  II, Sepeteri I, Sepeteri II, Sepeteri III, Sepeteri IV, Aganmu/Kooko, Ajegunle, Bagii,  Ekokan Mua, Iya, Oyidigbo /Kinnikinni, Oke-oro, Okerei,Okere ii,Sangote/ Booda/ Booda/IIus, Sepeteri/Bapon, Ago Are I, Ago Are II, Alaga, Basi, IrawoIIe, Ofiki, Irawo Owode, Tede I, Tede  II, Owo/Agunrege /Sabe, Agoro, Ajagunna, Atipa, Iba I, Iba II, Iba  III, Iba  IV, Iba V, Ikolaba, Laha/Ajana, Aboke, (AboyunOgun), Elerugba/ Elehinke/Sagbo (Aperu), Ikolaba/ Obadimo, Onigbeti I(Iyamopo), Onigbeti II/Saagbon Agoro (Santo), Onigbeti III & IV (Agbeni),Opa/Ogunnyi, Seriki&Abosino (Okin) Seriki II(Agbele), Waro/Apata Alaje, Agbaakin I, Agbaakin II, IwereIIe I, IwereIIe II, IwereIIe III, Sabi Gana I, Sabi Gana  II, Sabi Gana  III, Sabi Gana IV, AyetoroOke i, Elero, IbaOgan, Gbelekale  i & ii, Ijo, IIajiOke/IwereOke, Kajola, Imoba/OkeOgun, Olele, Isia, IsemiIIe/Imia/IIua, Aare, Alepata, Bonni, IgiIsubu, Igbope/Iyeye I,Igbope/Iyeye  II,Onibode I,Onibode II, Onibode III, Onigboho/ Alomo/Okere, Aaje/Ogunbado/OkeAgbede ,Abogunde, Aguodo/Masifa, IsaleAfon, IsaleAlaasa, Isale Ora/Saja, Jagun, Okelerin, Osupa,  Sabo/Tara, Oke Ola/Farm settlement, Lagbadu, Isoko, IIogbo, Ijeru I, Ijeru II, Ijeru III, Ibapon, Arowomole,  Lapata, Ado Awaye, Kosoi,Koso ii,Ekunle  i,  Ekunleii,Faramora, Akinwumi/Osoogun, Ijemba/Oke Ola/ OkeOja, Isalu  I, Isalu II, Ladogan/Oke Eyin, Ori-Ire I, Ori-Ire II, Ori-Ire III, Ori-Ire IV, Ori-Ire IX, Ori-Ire V, Ori-Ire VI, Ori-Ire VII, Ori-Ire VIII, Ori-Ire X, Babaode, Igbojaiye, Ipapo, Komu, Okaka I, Okaka II, Oke Amu, Otu I, Otu II, Owode/ ipapo, Ward I, N2, Ward II, N3, Ward III, N4, Ward IV, N5a, Ward V, N5b, Ward VI, (N6b part I), Ward VII, N6a part I,Ward VIII, N6a, part III, Ward X, N6b part II, Ward XI, NW8, Ward XII, NW 8, Ward III E3, Ward II ni (part II), Ward I E1, Ward IV E4, Ward IX E 7II, Ward V E5a, Ward E5b, Ward VII E6, Ward VIII E7 I, Ward X E8, Ward XI E9, Ward XII E9, C1, S s5, S1, S 2a, S 3, S 4a, S 4b,S 6a, S 7a, S 7b, S 2b, S 6b. [13] The alliance victory defined borders between the neighboring states. [33] This contributed to Oyo's ability to consistently field a large force. Early in the 16th century Oyo was a minor state, powerless before its northern neighbours Borgu and Nupe—by whom it was conquered in 1550. According to tradition, the Alaafin was expected to commit ritual suicide thereafter. Oyo was reduced in size when Osun state was created out of its eastern portion in 1991.