Governance and funding of the relevant exercises are the remit of three ministries (Education and Culture, Finance, Economic Affairs and Employment). A training agreement period can also be conducted abroad, as an exchange period, e.g. Because the Finnish system places so much emphasis on school and teacher autonomy, there are not clearly defined career ladders. Promoting employment and self-employment are key elements of VET. In further qualification programmes, there are more females. The Vocational Upper Secondary Education and Training Decree (673/2017([57]https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2017/20170673)) defines the principles for recognising prior learning. In Finland, the applicants willing to engage in vocational teacher education program are required to have a Master’s degree (or in some cases Bachelor’s degree) completed in a university or in a university of applied sciences and a minimum of three or five years’ work experience in a … personal competence development plan for each learner charting and recognising previously acquired skills; early leaving from education and training is low and decreasing; leaving VET early is still more common than in general education; participation in lifelong learning is high, also due to VET participation. Although there are no official data for trainers ([25]In-company trainers (nationally referred to as workplace instructors) are responsible for supervising learners during their on-the-job learning periods or apprenticeship training in enterprises.) Its share is slightly higher in upper secondary VET and higher education, but still remains below 5%. Specialised (usually owned by one private company or association, e.g. They are drawn up by the Finnish National Agency for Education in cooperation with working life partners ([62]Representatives of the employees/self-employed and employers (altogether called ‘working life’ in Finland).). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Finland. Since 1 August 2010, the amount of the allowance has been equal to the amount of the earnings-related unemployment allowance. #24 66% of high school students go on to further education (college or vocational courses). Some VET providers are foundations or limited companies; they are categorised as ‘private’ but municipalities usually have shares in such companies/foundations. Each student´s personal competence development plan must include recognition of prior learning. The recognition of prior learning must be done in all VET qualifications: in vocational, further and specialist qualifications. The following activities are essential when assuring that vocational education and training meets the requirements of the world of work. Organisation for Respiratory Health) vocational institutions, fire, police and security service institutions (national) and folk high schools, sports institutions, music schools and colleges (local) account for less than 10% of learners in initial VET. engineering, manufacturing and construction. In 2015, the Employment Fund granted EUR 157 million in adult education allowances and scholarships for qualified employees. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8100_en.pdf): National qualification requirements have been based on a competence-based approach since the early 1990s. There are nine anticipation groups representing the following fields: • natural resources, food production and the environment; See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([33]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast) and European Skills Index ([34]https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/indicators/european-skills-index). Each vocational qualification unit is a specific occupational area, which can be separated into an independent and assessable component. The education provider pays compensation to cover the costs of training provided in the workplace. The plan is attached to the application for a licence to provide VET. An adult education allowance is available to employees and self-employed people who wish to go on a study leave for at least two months. A few regulated professions require a vocational qualification. Working hours are at least 25 hours per week. They provide education and training to more than 75% of initial VET learners. In 2017, the former 30 national education and training committees were replaced by nine anticipating groups representing different vocational fields (see Section 3.1.3). Another challenge is the sometimes limited shop floor experience of teachers with a university degree. The latter is now being addressed by the new financing mechanism that gives more weight to the effectiveness of studies and is pushing towards timely acquisition of qualifications. Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019]. No final examinations exist in VET. Teacher Career Ladders. Guidance and counselling should enable all pupils to reach the best results possible for them. The task is to analyse changing competence and skills needs; their impact on the development of education on the basis of the anticipation data; and to promote the interaction of education and training with working life in cooperation with the Ministry and Finnish National Agency for Education. When it comes to top-quality education, Finland is one of the first countries that comes to mind. VET education providers are responsible for providing the training. These changes can lead to a change of the qualification requirements, or even the qualification structure, of initial, further and specialist vocational qualifications. A maximum of nine members may be appointed to each working life committee. If the employment has lasted for less than a year, but for at least three months, the maximum length of study leave is five days. The plan details the guidelines and procedures adopted by the education provider regarding the implementation of competence assessment. Consequently, larger vocational institutions can offer enough vocational modules to ensure that learners can customise their programmes and choose studies that match changing needs for competences. A study grant is available as soon as eligibility for child benefit finishes at the age of 17. Major trade unions, employers, regional councils, and representatives of education institutions are involved in anticipation exercises. Vocational institutions can organise their activities freely, according to the requirements of their fields or their regions, and decide on their institutional networks and other services. The Parasta osaamista project also offers support for workplace instructors. http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/handle/10024/75163). Learners pay taxes from their allowances if they receive income from other source(s). If this is not possible, it can also be organised in school facilities. Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019]. Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019]. Prior learning acquired in training, working life or other learning environments has to be recognised as part of the qualification. Professional teacher education Professional/Vocational teacher education is intended for applicants who work or intend to work as a teacher at Universities of Applied Sciences and institutions of vocational education. Each working life committee is responsible for one or more qualifications. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. Specialised (usually owned by one private company or association, e.g. Similar to public VET providers, they receive government subsidies and have the right to award official qualification certificates. Depending on the agreement between employer and employee, an employer who takes on an apprentice may receive training compensation to cover the costs of training provided at the workplace. The amount of compensation to be paid to the employer is agreed separately with employer and VET provider as part of each apprenticeship contract. Providers are required to play an active role in addressing the national/regional labour market skills needs. Data from VET in Finland Spotlight 2016 ([3]Cedefop (2016). A teacher’s task is to guide and motivate the learners to complete their qualifications, support them in the planning of their further studies, help them to find their strengths and develop their learning skills. The national qualification requirements define the required vocational competence, principles of assessment and how the competence is demonstrated. Skills anticipation in Finland. Education is publicly funded through public tax revenue at all levels. Representatives of the employees/self-employed and employers (altogether called ‘working life’ in Finland). Apprenticeship training is based on the requirements of the relevant qualification, according to which the learner’s personal competence development plan is drawn up. WBL may be provided during the whole programme duration and cover the whole qualification, a module/unit, or a smaller part of the programme. Source: Statistics Finland (Vipunen). In addition to basic competence in the field, qualification holders have specialist skills to work either as a groom or a riding instructor in various sectors of the horse industry.The qualification titles produced by the vocational qualification in horse care and management are groom and riding instructor. All programmes are competence-based. providing public authorities with recommendations on new development needs and cooperation between the world of work and education. NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training. VET schools offer short courses/events to upskill workplace instructors in relation to various themes, such as how to guide special needs learners at the workplace. Skills anticipation influences government policies on VET, higher education and adult education. There is also plenty of autonomy for continuing professional development (CPD) for VET teachers. Guidance and counselling start at the beginning of basic education and continue through all education levels. a car manufacturer) and special needs (usually owned by municipalities and associations, e.g. They frequently have a vocational or professional qualification but hold no pedagogical qualifications. The employment rate of VET graduates (age 20-34, ISCED levels 3 and 4) has increased since 2014 by 2.2 percentage points and reached 79.8% in 2018. They are national private institutions, also referred to as ‘government dependent private institutions’, which provide training for their own needs outside the national qualifications structure described above, and which mainly focus on continuing training for their own staff. Both rates have improved in recent years ([2]Source: Statistics Finland.). teachers of vocational units, teachers of common units, special needs teachers; education provider´s competence assessment plan; learner`s personal competence development plan. For more information about VET in higher education in Finland please see the case study from Cedefop's changing nature and role of VET in Europe projectt [18a]Cedefop (2019). They are drawn up by the Finnish National Agency for Education in cooperation with working life ([48]Representatives of the employees/self-employed and employers (altogether called ‘working life’ in Finland).). This preparatory education and training provides students with capabilities for applying to VET, leading to qualifications, and fosters their preconditions for, completing qualifications. Source: https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1998/19980986#L5. Vocational Teacher Education is aimed for those who intend to teach or are already acting as teachers in vocational education or in universities of applied sciences in Finland. through a range of channels including reports, workshops and online publications. The recognition of prior learning must be done in all VET qualifications: in vocational, further and specialist qualifications. The language of instruction for initial and continuing VET is decided in the licence for VET provision, granted by the education ministry. Teachers of vocational units take teacher’s pedagogical studies at five vocational teacher education institutions (universities of applied sciences) while teachers of common units (such as languages and mathematics) generally complete them at universities. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019]. Working life committees participate in developing the qualification structure and in designing the qualification requirements. The duration of the allowance is determined on the basis of the applicant’s working history and ranges from 2 to 15 months. Around one-third (31%) of women were enrolled in health and welfare, 20% in services and 25% in business, administration and law. VET providers decide on the use of all funds granted. This supports building flexible and individual learning paths and promotes validation of prior learning. Young people (15-24) with low qualifications (ISCED 0-2) are much more exposed to unemployment than older people who have more working experience. The optional additional year is provided to students at age 16. A vocational upper secondary qualification (initial VET) is designed for young people who may not have any work experience and for adults who, for example, don´t have any formal qualification or who want to change their profession. Finland's PISA scores have sharply declined in recent years, leading many to argue that fashionable explanations of its initial success may have been inaccurate. This has been perceived in Finland as being a means of guaranteeing equal education opportunities for the entire population irrespective of social or ethnic background, gender and place of residence. Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].). This paper examines Finland vocational (career technical) teacher education programs over the past 50 years. In addition, there were 16 private VET providers who did not receive the licence, but can continue providing VET for a transitional period. Vocational schools in other countries offer similar training … Eurostat table une_rt_a [extracted 20.5.2019]. The system consists of a steering group, anticipation groups and a network of experts. In addition to the needs of the world of work, development of VET and qualifications takes into account consolidation of lifelong learning skills, as well as the individuals’ needs and opportunities to complete qualifications flexibly to suit their own circumstances. The recognition of prior learning must be done in all VET qualifications: in vocational, further and specialist qualifications. In 2017, 43% of all male VET students studied in one particular field, i.e. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8100_en.pdf), updated in May 2019. The scholarship must be applied for within a year after completing the qualification. Teachers have the responsibility and power of decision for participating in the education and they may receive support from society in the form of various study grants. Rapidly increasing youth unemployment globally proves that relying on traditional forms of education is not sufficient to foster vibrant economies. For the period of theoretical studies, learners receive social benefits, such as a daily allowance and allowances for accommodation and travel expenses. Harri Keurulainen, JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Teacher Education College, 2017. Involvement of the world of work in developing qualification requirements and quality in VET. Those who apply for a place in vocational teacher education are, on average, older than applicants of other forms of teacher education. First, teachers of vocational units must have an appropriate higher education degree in their own vocational sector. NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training. The programme is coordinated by … In 2018, among 20 to 24 year-olds, 11.8% were neither in employment nor in education and training. These also include skills generally required in working life, such as social skills and key competences for lifelong learning. If such a degree does not exist, it can also be supplemented by the highest possible other qualification in the sector. are informed): recognition of prior learning; demonstration of competence; skills assurance before the demonstration of competence; assessment; certification; preparatory programme planning; and monitoring the implementation of the plan itself. The world around us is transforming through technology, globalization, shifting demographics, economic and environmental change. Vocational qualifications are structured in a modular way. Members of these groups are representatives of employers, employees and self-employed entrepreneurs, as well as VET providers, higher education institutions, teaching staff, researchers and educational administration. Finnish professional development programs for teachers focus on the knowledge and practical skills needed to improve the performance of teachers in vocational education and training. The responsibility of education providers for anticipating and responding to labour market changes has increased, as operational targeting and steering powers ([28]It means among other things that VET providers can decide within the limits of the licence received from Ministry of Education and Culture what qualifications and training programmes to offer.) The feedback is collected via a centrally designed questionnaire which learners answer twice: at the beginning of the studies and at the end, once the learner has demonstrated all the skills and competences needed for the qualification. The last one requires passing the matriculation examination. The quality assurance of VET consists of VET provider´s own quality management, national VET steering and external evaluation. All VET programmes ensure eligibility for higher education studies. It means among other things that VET providers can decide within the limits of the licence received from Ministry of Education and Culture what qualifications and training programmes to offer. These fields include general upper secondary education, vocational education and training (including continuing VET), and higher education. In particular, regional anticipation activities have developed rapidly in the past decade. The VET provider collects the feedback from learners and saves the learners´ answers in the online system that has been developed for this purpose. Any qualification can be acquired through apprenticeship training – a work-based form of VET that is based on a written fixed-term employment contract (apprenticeship contract) between an employer and an apprentice, who must be at least 15 years old. Studies in upper secondary VET are based on individual study plans, comprising both compulsory and optional study modules. Their aim is to ensure the quality and working life orientation of VET. It also supports learners’ growth into good and balanced individuals and members of society, and it provides them with the knowledge and skills needed for further studies and for the development of their personalities. Pre-primary education (esiopetus, förskoleundervisning) is compulsory and it is provided to learners aged 6 years old. Vocational adult education centres (public and regional) mostly provide further and specialist VET. ISBN: 978-952-263-592-1. VET provides students with strong vocational competence. Prior learning acquired in training, working life or other learning environments has to be recognised as part of the qualification. Admission to further vocational qualifications is decided on a case-by-case basis, taking work experience into consideration. Anticipation groups are involved in both qualitative and quantitative anticipation work. They are statutory bodies of elected officials, appointed by the Finnish National Agency for Education to manage a public duty. The study leave is unpaid unless otherwise agreed with the employer. The Ministry of Education and Culture decides on study places by field of education (around 10). At national level, the Finnish National Agency for Education, which operates under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and Culture, produces long-term (10+ years) national forecasts ([27]https://beta.oph.fi/fi/tilastot-ja-julkaisut/julkaisut/osaaminen-2035) on the demand for labour and education needs in support of decision-making. Most companies are small- and medium-sized. Learners themselves find work places for the training. Analytical highlights series. are determined by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The purpose of VET provider self-evaluation is to recognise strengths and targets to be developed. At the beginning of their studies learners are required to rate statements relating to the following themes: flexibility of starting time of studies and content of the individual programme; accreditation of prior learning; and support and guidance needed. Specialist vocational qualifications (continuing VET) are for adults who usually have work experience or other prior learning. The development of the anticipation model has involved social partners representing the piloted sectors (the real estate and building sectors, the social, welfare and health care sectors and the tourism and catering sectors), representatives of research institutions and of various fields of education, as well as other experts in the sectors in question. One specific challenge has been to find qualified teachers in some fields. The new quality assurance guidelines are currently being discussed by stakeholders to be published by the end of 2019. Teacher training programs are competitive (admitting about 1 in 10 students) and rigorous. The most common type of VET provider is vocational institutions (owned by municipalities, industry and service sector) ([46]Some VET providers are foundations or limited companies; they are categorised as ‘private’ but municipalities usually have shares in such companies/foundations.). This cost-efficiency trend in education has been apparent since the mid-1990s. Most education provision is publicly funded and free for learners from pre- primary to higher education levels. Once learners successfully complete all the studies included in their personal competence development plans, the VET provider grants a certificate for the entire qualification or for one or more units of the qualification. further vocational qualifications and specialist vocational qualifications) or degrees of universities of applied sciences in his personal competence development plan. They provide education and training to more than 75% of initial VET learners. Source: Education Statistics Finland (Vipunen): https://vipunen.fi/. The Act includes one uniform funding system for the provision of VET covering vocational upper secondary education and training, vocational further education and training, apprenticeship training and labour market training leading to a qualification (see Section 2.9.3). Later you will also be able to apply to a polytechnic or university. The share of work-based learning (WBL) is individually planned for each learner in the personal competence development plan. Furthermore annually over 2000 professionals participate in our professional training courses. In upper secondary VET, operating costs per learner vary between EUR 6 488 for all apprenticeships (companies cover most of the costs) to EUR 27 956 in special needs VET ([23]The most recent available data of 2017.). The qualification requirements are drawn up under the leadership of the Finnish National Agency for Education in tripartite cooperation with employers, employees and the education sector. When the basic education is finished, Finland opens the ability to study a general upper secondary school or to get an education in vocational institutions. Vocational teacher education in Finland. 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