[129], India maintained close ties with neighbouring Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) following the Liberation War. Golden Revolution: The period between 1991 to 2003 is known as the period of the Golden Revolution. The rebellion was suppressed with the Indian Air Force carrying out airstrikes in Aizawl; this remains the only instance of India carrying out an airstrike in its own territory. Intensive irrigation of these crops is creating water-logging and soil depletion problems (Fig. [162], During Lal Bahadur Shastri's last full year in office (1965), inflation averaged 7.7%, compared to 5.2% at the end of Gandhi's first term in office (1977). [24][21] After her mother died, she attended the Badminton School for a brief period before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. He wielded tremendous power during the emergency without holding any government office. Furthermore, they were also apprehensions in the region about Gandhi's plans, particularly after India played a big role in breaking up Pakistan and facilitating the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign country in 1971. [15], Farmer's financial issues have become especially apparent in Punjab, where its rural areas have witnessed an alarming rise in suicide rates. [15] Excluding the countless unreported cases, there has been estimated to be a 51.97% increase in the number of suicides in Punjab in 1992–93, compared to the recorded 5.11% increase in the country as a whole. 7 ; Indira Gandhi the then P.M of India. b Mahatma Gandhi. The Green Revolution in India was first introduced in Punjab in the late 1960s as part of a development program issued by international donor agencies and the Government of India.[15]. "[172], Gandhi inherited a weak and troubled economy. [146] There was an increase in Indian economic and military co-operation with Iran during the 1970s. Gandhi did not make a special effort to appoint women to cabinet positions. [165][166] Although in time Gandhi came to be viewed as the scourge of the right-wing and reactionary political elements of India, leftist opposition to her policies emerged. [4] She was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1959. Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat. In an effort to split the Akali Dal and gain popular support among the Sikhs, Gandhi's Congress Party helped to bring the orthodox religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale to prominence in Punjab politics. Indira Gandhi, the thenPrime Minister of India,released a special stamp entitled'Wheat Revolution' in July 1968. [111] Salma Sultan provided the first news of her assassination on Doordarshan's evening news on 31 October 1984, more than 10 hours after she was shot.[112][113]. [51][52][53][54][note 1] In the elections held for State assemblies across India in March 1972, the Congress (R) swept to power in most states riding on the post-war "Indira wave". [244], Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi left a powerful but controversial legacy on Indian politics. b District officer. In 1968, the birth of the Green Revolution was announced by Indira Gandhi by issuance of a special stamp titled the wheat revolution. Even the opposition leader Atal Bihari Vajpayeepraised her, calling her as Goddess Durga. 1944) and Sanjay (b. [45], Some other objectives of the economic plan for the period were to provide for the minimum needs of the community through a rural works program and the removal of the privy purses of the nobility. The ambitious cultivators of the Indira Gandhi Canal com­mand area have changed their land use pattern as they instead of pas­tures are growing rice, cotton and wheat with the help of irrigation. Previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, it was renamed the Indira Gandhi Canal on 2 November 1984 following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. She also resolutely refused to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). [171] To the rural and urban poor, untouchables, minorities and women in India, Gandhi was "Indira Amma or Mother Indira. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352(1) of the Constitution, on 25 June 1975. [165] By the end of the 1960s, the reversal of the liberalisation process was complete, and India's policies were characterised as "protectionist as ever. Further, heavy dependence on few major crops has led to loss of biodiversity of farmers. Criticism on the effects of the green revolution include the cost for many small farmers using HYV seeds, with their associated demands of increased irrigation systems and pesticides. During late 60’s and 70’s, Indira Gandhi nationalized the banks, coal mines and several other [135] However, relations soured over Sri Lanka's movement away from socialism under J. R. Jayewardene, whom Gandhi despised as a "western puppet". Times Now Digital . Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. Indira Priyadarshini. In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs. Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first prime minister of India. [45], During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, foreign-owned private oil companies had refused to supply fuel to the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. "Meetings That Changed the World: Bellagio 1969: The Green Revolution. [119], After leading India to victory against Pakistan in the Bangladesh liberation war in 1971, President V. V. Giri awarded Gandhi with India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna. Today, Mizoram is considered one of the most peaceful states in the north-east. Meanwhile, government investment … In 2020 Gandhi was named by the Time magazine among world's 100 powerful women who defined the last century[8][9], 3rd and first female Prime Minister of India, First term as Prime Minister between 1966 and 1977, Green Revolution and the Fourth Five-Year Plan, State of Emergency and the Fifth Five-Year Plan, Operation Forward and the Sixth Five-Year Plan, sfn error: no target: CITEREFIndira_Gandhi:_Daughter_of_India2002 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSomervill2007 (. [185] Gandhi declared inflation the gravest of problems in 1974 (at 25.2%) and devised a severe anti-inflation program. Indira Gandhi led the Congress back to victory in 1980 elections and Gandhi resumed the office of ... that outlined plans for a major revolutionary initiative in the early 1930s. [98] On 23 April 1983, the Punjab Police Deputy Inspector General A. S. Atwal was shot dead as he left the Temple compound. [21], Excessive and inappropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides polluted waterways and killed beneficial insects and wildlife. She began a new course by launching the Fourth Five-Year Plan in 1969. [100], The day before her death (30 October 1984), Gandhi visited Odisha where she gave her last speech at the then Parade Ground in front of the Secretariat of Odisha. In Bihar, Jayaprakash Narayan, the veteran leader came out of retirement to lead the protest movement there. Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi continued Nehru’s policy ... produce its food requirements and had to import large quantities of wheat from the US in ... in the ‘Green Revolution’. [14] She had a lonely and unhappy childhood. "[176], To deal with India's food problems, Gandhi expanded the emphasis on production of inputs to agriculture that had already been initiated by her father, Jawaharlal Nehru. [76] In response to her arrest, Gandhi's supporters hijacked an Indian Airlines jet and demanded her immediate release. Priyadarshi, D., 1975. Ganganagar alone produces about 17% of the total wheat … Gandhi indicated that she would make no major concessions on Kashmir. [196], Victory over Pakistan in 1971 consolidated Indian power in Kashmir. I don't believe in words at all. [45] Most of this was done to protect employment and the interests of organised labour. A small-scale insurgency by some militants continued into the late 1970s, but it was successfully dealt with by the government. [150] Gandhi began negotiations with the Kenyan government to establish the Africa-India Development Cooperation. Groundwater practices have fallen dramatically. This was partially addressed by importing wheat from the … [245] Gandhi is also associated with fostering a culture of nepotism in Indian politics and in India's institutions. 30. [21] It was during her interview[clarification needed] that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, literally "looking at everything with kindness" in Sanskrit, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered the military operation Sikh Militants from the Harmandir Sahib Complex, or the Golden Temple located in Amritsar, Punjab. "[237] At another point, she went into more detail: "To a woman, motherhood is the highest fulfilment ... To bring a new being into this world, to see its perfection and to dream of its future greatness is the most moving of all experiences and fills one with wonder and exaltation. Within a decade or so, India didn’t need to import food. "[57] And she dismissed criticism of the way her Congress Party raised election campaign money, saying all parties used the same methods. President of the Indian National Congress, List of state visits made by Indira Gandhi, authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device, suffered persecution and eventually expulsion, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India, Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration, List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government, "Rahul first in three generations with a world university degree", "19th November 2017: 100 years of Indira Gandhi. This was unacceptable to many non-Hindi speaking states, which wanted the continued use of English in government. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. Major milestones in this undertaking were the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat,[7] and rust resistant strains of wheat. [219], Gandhi's yoga guru, Dhirendra Brahmachari, helped her in making certain decisions and also executed certain top level political tasks on her behalf, especially from 1975 to 1977 when Gandhi "declared a state of emergency and suspended civil liberties. With so little in common, the Morarji Desai government was bogged down by infighting. [15] Her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bedridden with illness, and later suffered an early death from tuberculosis. However, it is very difficult to believe that she was not at all aware that a large part of this money came from the Soviet Union, from the KGB. Indira was 18 at the time and had never experienced a stable family life during her childhood. [57][58] Gandhi had asked one of her colleagues in government, Ashoke Kumar Sen, to defend her in court. [165][187], Despite the provisions, control and regulations of the Reserve Bank of India, most banks in India had continued to be owned and operated by private persons. The development of new varieties of seeds has brought about a real revolution in wheat production. [200] Gandhi responded by having a Presidential proclamation issued; de-recognising the princes; with this withdrawal of recognition, their claims to privy purses were also legally lost. Athletics & apartheid. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar Jail. The easy trade deals also applied to non-military goods. [166] Armed with the power to rule by decree and without constitutional constraints, Gandhi embarked on a massive redistribution program. Gandhi was unhappy with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but once again calculations involving relations with Pakistan and China kept her from criticising the Soviet Union harshly. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs. [81][82] The conditions included dropping all charges against Gandhi and Sanjay. The success of wheat was later replicated in rice. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: [ˈɪndɪɾa ˈɡaːndʱi] (listen); née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. It had facilities for grading, fungicide treatment, bagging, and fumigation storage of the seeds produced by the farmers, who made hay in the early Green Revolution … [165] In contrast to the reception of Gandhi's earlier economic plan, this one was criticised for being a "hastily thrown together wish list. In 1936 , her mother, Kamala Nehru, finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle. [166] The provisions included rapid enforcement of land ceilings, housing for landless labourers, the abolition of bonded labour and a moratorium on the debts of the poor. India’s self-sufficiency in food and many sectors of agriculture owes to the Green Revolution that Indira Gandhi mentored. He is the man behind introducing various high yielding varieties in the country which helped in the emancipation of Indian farmers and raised the standard of Indian economy by making the country self sufficient in food. "[50], Gandhi's biggest achievement following the 1971 election came in December 1971 with India's decisive victory over Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War that occurred in the last two weeks of the Bangladesh Liberation War, which led to the formation of independent Bangladesh. Mainly led by agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan in India, this period was part of the larger Green revolution endeavor initiated by Norman Borlaug, which leveraged agricultural research and technology to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world. Initially, her younger son Sanjay had been her chosen heir, but after his death in a flying accident in June 1980, Gandhi persuaded her reluctant elder son Rajiv to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981. Indira Gandhi the former Prime Minister of India. [102] There were also incidents of mutiny by Sikh soldiers in the aftermath of the attack. Even though the movem… [13] The methods adopted included the use of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds[14] with modern farming methods. Gandhi gave verbal authorisation for this test, and preparations were made in the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range. Relations with the US were strained badly under President Richard Nixon and his favouring of Pakistan during the Bangladesh liberation war. [32][88], Her PMO office staff included H.Y.Sharada Prasad as her information adviser and speechwriter. For their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight. San Diego: Jayakar, Pupul. The main reason was the perceived bias of the United States and China, rivals of the USSR, towards Pakistan. Gandhi setzt sich für die Rechte der indischen Bevölkerung in Südafrika ein und entwickelt im Kampf um Gleichberechtigung sein Konzept des gewaltfreien Widerstands, der Satyagraha. She had been described to him as an 'Ogre', but he found her charming and easy to work with and they formed a close working relationship during her premiership in the 1980s. Dr. M. S. Swaminathan was director of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research at the time of Green Revolution. 2. 2007. First List; Second list; Latest; shayari; E-Books; others ; Indira Gandhi flight IC-410 Hijacking. The villages or regions without the access of sufficient water were left out that widened the regional disparities between adopters and non-adopters. Which […] The political parties in India paid substantial attention to Gandhi's gender before she became prime minister, hoping to use her for political gain. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. Skip to content. [122] U.S. President Richard Nixon disliked Gandhi personally, referring to her as a "witch" and a "clever fox" in his private communication with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Agricultural income was not taxable. [91][92] Later, Bhindranwale's organisation, Damdami Taksal, became embroiled in violence with another religious sect called the Sant Nirankari Mission, and he was accused of instigating the murder of Jagat Narain, the owner of the Punjab Kesari newspaper. a Motilal Nehru. [184] The Sixth Plan went on to become the most successful of the Five-Year Plans yet; showing an average growth rate of 5.7% over 1980–85. Citing separatist tendencies, and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and the press was censored. [168] Nevertheless, others were more convinced of Gandhi's sincerity and devotion to socialism. [49] The programs created through Garibi Hatao, though carried out locally, were funded and developed by the Central Government in New Delhi. The nationalisation drive not only helped to increase household savings, but it also provided considerable investments in the informal sector, in small- and medium-sized enterprises, and in agriculture, and contributed significantly to regional development and to the expansion of India's industrial and agricultural base. "[138][139], India's relationship with Pakistan remained strained following the Shimla Accord in 1972. These factors formed a rationale for the implementation of the Green Revolution as a development strategy in India. [166] She justified the imposition of the state of emergency in 1975 in the name of the socialist mission of the Congress. 6 by the People's Republic of China. [166] The motion to abolish privy purses, and the official recognition of the titles, was originally brought before the Parliament in 1970. She was said to be hailed as Goddess Durga by opposition leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee at the time. Jayakar, Pupul. [190] In 1969, Gandhi moved to nationalise fourteen major commercial banks. ", Hardin, Lowell S. 2008. Low productivity: In the context of India's rapidly growing population, the country's traditional agricultural practices yielded insufficient food production. [150] After reaching a high diplomatic point in the aftermath of Nehru's role in the Suez Crisis, India's isolation from Africa was complete when only four nations—Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Libya—supported her during the Sino-Indian War in 1962. After a significant exodus from the party to Singh's faction, Desai resigned in July 1979. During Nehru's time as Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964, Gandhi was considered a key assistant and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips. Indira Gandhi used the emergency provisions to change conflicting party members: Unlike her father Jawaharlal Nehru, who preferred to deal with strong chief ministers in control of their legislative parties and state party organizations, Mrs. Gandhi set out to remove every Congress chief minister who had an independent base and to replace each of them with ministers personally loyal to her...Even so, stability could not be maintained in the states...[64], President Ahmed issued ordinances that did not require debate in the Parliament, allowing Gandhi to rule by decree. "[226] Gandhi spent a great deal of time throughout the 1950s helping to organise women. "[165][178] The rationale behind the overall plan was Gandhi's Ten-Point Programme of 1967. The political economist, Jyotindra Das Gupta, cryptically questioned "...whether or not the real supporters of land-holders were in jail or in power? [166] Nevertheless, others have disputed the success of the program and criticised Gandhi for not doing enough to reform land ownership. [136] India under Gandhi was alleged to have supported the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) militants in the 1980s to put pressure on Jayewardene to abide by Indian interests. In 1999, Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. The alliance parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan. [170] Gandhi personally had a fuzzy concept of socialism. The Green Revolution. During the British Raj, India's grain economy hinged on a unilateral relation of exploitation. Intensive irrigation of these crops is creating water-logging and soil depletion problems (Fig. [citation needed], Kumar, Manoj, and Matthias Williams. [12] She was the only child (she had a younger brother who died young),[13] and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan, a large family estate in Allahabad. It transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains, and prone to famine, to one largely able to feed itself, and becoming successful in achieving its goal of food security. Encouraging Indian scientists to collaborate with their international counterparts, her policies resulted in Indian farmers taking … Who founded the Green Revolution in India with his high-yielding variety (HYV) of wheat and rice, after which it was implemented by the Government of India in its fourth "Five-Year Plan" (1969–1974) when Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister? [157] She also enjoyed a close working relationship with many British leaders including conservative premiers, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher. [citation needed] She gave evidence in her defence during the trial. [8][9], Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. But now this government is hell-bent on driving us all back to hunger with its new agricultural policies that will cut out the small and marginal farmer and aid only conglomerates to thrive in the business of farming. By its hatred of Gandhi 's contributions to the wheat Revolution ’ in July 1968 by Suicide. Government to establish the make of the Indian Army 's Pokhran Test.! Equal rights for all citizens and the Soviet Union after the state of emergency was lifted the Golden:! Was lifted 76 ] in the resulting turbulence in the 1973–75 period, after the state of ordered! Indirā Priyadarśinī Gāndhī ; * 19 30 rounds `` woman of the Millennium '' an... 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