The length of a seahorse is measured from the first trunk ring to the tip of the tail. Decapod, (order Decapoda), any of more than 8,000 species of crustaceans (phylum Arthropoda) that include shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, hermit crabs, and crabs. Anal fin. There are three divisions to the body of the horseshoe crab: the prosoma , the opisthosoma, and the telson. My Cart. Teach animal body parts with our growing collection of printable worksheets and resources. Cockroach Eyes. Spleen - this organ gets rid of red blood cells and other foreign matter. The eggs are laid shortly after copulation and are retained on the female's body until the larvae emerge. Scientists discover new hormone in the eyestalks of blue crabs responsible for forming body parts that make it possible for female crabs to mate and raise young. Carapace: the hard outer shield comprised of exoskeleton covering the cephalthorax. Focus on the head, you may notice small appendages around the mouth. The second pair of legs are used for walking and detecting food. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... Crayfish Anatomy. Label the body parts of a wide range of … aid in the opening and closing of the shells of a clam. But few people know all its parts and their essential functions. Mapping differences of body shape reveal different functions for the same body structures in male and female of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The decapod crustacean such as a crab lobster shrimp or prawn is made up of 20 body segments grouped into two main body parts the cephalothorax and the pleon abdomen. In most species, the tips of the remaining four pairs of legs terminate in pointed tips. One group of specialized swimming crabs (the family Portunidae) have an oval shaped body and the last pair of walking legs are flattened and act as paddles that propel the animal. All Rights Reserved. Their chelipeds are also fringed with tiny hair-like structures known as setae, which help extract the largest unwanted materials from the water current before other parts are ingested. Crustaceans: Antennae - Two sensory organs (feelers) located towards the front of the crab. What color is the lobster’s blood? Coconut crabs—so called because of their habit of digging in the soft soils of coconut plantations—occasionally climb trees and sever the stems attaching young coconuts, on which they feed. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Start with the claws. These are called the MAXILLIPEDS, and there are three sets, one on top of the other. Crabs form an order within the decapods, called the Brachyura. Describe two structural and behavioral adaptations crabs use for feeding and protection. The branchial chamber is on the sides of the thorax, above the crab's legs. The shell is held on through a combination of modified hind limbs, which grasp some of the internal rings of the shell, and the pressure of the body against the shell wall. The branchial chamber is on the sides of the thorax, above the crab's legs. Anterior and Posterior Muscles. During molting, all the muscles have to detach from the molted skeleton and reattach to the newly secreted one underneath it. Fully grown, it can reach a leg span of almost 4 metres (13 feet), a body size of up to 37 centimetres (15 inches) and a weight of up to 20 kilograms (44 pounds). Crab is an invertebrate that belongs to the crustacean family. Their short body is covered by a thick exoskeleton. Besides aquatic species, some crabs are semi-terrestrial or terrestrial (they live on the land). You can find appendages on both areas. Comb is a small ice of meat above the chickens head. The decapod crustacean, such as a crab, lobster, shrimp or prawn, is made up of 20 body segments grouped into two main body parts: the cephalothorax and the pleon (). This group contains the largest known arthropod, the giant Japanese crab (Macrocheira kaempferi) which can measure up to 13 ft (4 m) in diameter when fully extended. main crab body parts are leg parts unique to crabs - the front two Students will be able to: Identify major body parts of crabs that help them survive. When moving on land or on the sea bed, crabs usually move in a sideways manner: the leading legs pull the body forward and those on the opposite side assist by pushing. The larval stage, known as the zoea, is a minute transparent organism with a legless, rounded body, that swims and feeds in the plankton. 22 terms. The carapace is made of chitin. These crabs rarely venture into the sea, apart from when they lay their eggs. A Maine lobster has 19 body parts! flatpiano2. If a crab loses its claw, a new one will grow. The exoskeleton is shed periodically as the crab grows. PLAY. Dolphins also have a dorsal fin, which is the vertical fin on the dolphin's back. PLAY. When males are trying to attract females, they wave these large claws two and fro; crabs with larger claws seem to attract more suitors than those with tiny claws. Learn these parts of body names to increase your vocabulary words in English. ... Like all crustaceans, shrimp have three distinct body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. The body of the honey bee is divided into head, thorax, and abdomen, parts that are joined and move with each other. The heart is a long tube that pumps colorless blood from the head throughout the body and then back up to the head again. Structure and function; On this page. The majority of the internal organs are located in the cephalothorax of the crayfish (the head and chest area). Pelvic fin. These crabs are usually a light brown color with mottled purple and darker brown patches on the carapace—a pattern that helps to conceal them on the dark sands and mud flats on which they live. These species then filter out any food particles and reject the remainder of the materials. Circulatory System:Pumps and channels blood to and from the body and lungs, plays an important role in the transportation of nutrients, gases, hormones and wastes through the body. and its Licensors The presence of five pairs of thoracic legs (pereiopods) is the basis for the name decapod (from the Greek meaning “10 legs”). Overview; Objectives. Some species may use just two or three pairs of legs when moving quickly, stopping occasionally to turn around and reverse the order in which the legs move. Arguably the most delectable part of the dungeness crab is the claws. The snout is measured from the tip of the snout to the gill opening. 30 terms. When did organ music become associated with baseball? It is vital for the iron absorption of gut. The claw is usually carried horizontally in front of the body and has been likened to a fiddle; the smaller opposing claw is known as the bow. This allows them to see many things at the same time. However, the head and thorax are often fused to form the cephalothorax. The crustaceans all have three body parts, head, thorax, and abdomen. Hermit crabs never kill the original occupant Looking at the exterior of the crab, the body is divided into three sections. The body of spiders is divided in two major parts. Incurrent Siphon . STUDY. 32 terms. Swimming legs. The head is measured from the tip of the snout to just before the first trunk ring. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Crustaceans are a class of arthropods that is mainly marine, and includes such members as crabs, crayfish, shrimp and lobster. The front section of the horseshoe crab’s body, which is also the largest section. Crabs are armed with a single pair of claws. When resting, the crab can withdraw entirely inside the shell, blocking the opening with its claws. Closely related to the hermit crab, robber crabs have developed a toughened upper surface on their abdomen which means that have no need of a shell for protection. How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? The joint of the cheliped part which is connected to the crab’s body is located besides the eyes of the crabs. In general we know about single comb, rose comb and pea comb. While turtles are perhaps the best known examples, animals with shells also include shrimp and bivalve mollusks such as clams and snails. GrizzellDEAN. sometimes used for walking but mostly for eating. These are like pincers, a tool with two parts used to grip things. It covers the body in place of the normal mulluscan shell. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. Contrary to popular opinion, few crabs actually swim. acnulton123. Gills - A hermit crab's gills are enclosed in the branchial chamber, which functions as a lung. In fact, secondary sexual morphologic differences between males and females reveal a sexual dimorphism evolving distinct morphologic aspects of these crabs. Thymus - this gland is the center of immune control. Epidermis . Crabs are in the subphylum Crustacea. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? Crabs are found in all of the world's oceans, while many crabs live in fresh water and on land, particularly in tropical regions. From a top view, it is shaped like a horse's shoe. Unlike the cephalothorax, the abdomen of the crab is soft and unprotected. Walking legs Crab has phosphorus that enhances the function of kidneys and eliminates toxins and also enhances the metabolic efficiency. Most crabs live in sea-water, but there are some who live in fresh water, and … Crack the claws by using the hinged cracker, hitting them with the crab mallet, or using your knife. An increase in overall body mobility generates a bigger demand … 2. of its head and the middle part of the body * cephalothorax - that Created by. cheliped is called chela, and these are used to grasp or hold Pick away all the chunks of meat in the body. This exercise involves each and every tissue from your fingers to your toes, and this makes it an extremely effective workout for the entire body. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. The first pair of walking legs are large in comparison with the remainder of the body and end in pinching claws. Crabs have a complicated life history. Everybody knows that the human heart is the essential organ in our bodies. They are among the most successful of all living species (about 4,500 species have been described), with members adapted to living on land and in water; some species even succeed in living in both habitats. They are basically heavily armoured shell-breakers. Crustaceans are a class of arthropods that is mainly marine, and includes such members as crabs, crayfish, shrimp and lobster. The claw on the The dorsal fin acts like the keel on a boat by providing stability to the dolphin's body. Crabs can be found in all oceans. Body Parts Of Chicken. A crab's tail and reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax. Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Cosine to Cyano group, Copyright © 2020 Web Solutions LLC. Now scrape out the gooey stuff in the center of the crab's body's two equal solid parts. These are sometimes referred to as the cephalothorax, the abdomen, and the tail. part of the body consisting of a hard shell * thorax - consisting LUNGS AND HEART. It’s the part of the shell that’s shaped like a horseshoe, and contains the majority of its vital organs including its brain, heart, mouth, nervous system, and glands. Glands contributing digestive juices include the salivary glands, the gastric glands in the stomach lining, the pancreas, and the liver and its adjuncts—the gallbladder and bile ducts. Dolphins also have a dorsal fin, which is the vertical fin on the dolphin's back. 1. Further development leads to the immature and mature adult form. Gravity. The branchial chamber is on the sides of the thorax, above the crab's legs. No, this is called the "tomally" and is an organ special to crabs and lobsters that functions as both their liver and pancreas. The shell is a structure which protects all or part of an animal's body. The Japanese spider crab has an orange body, but it has white spots on its thin legs. The remaining eight are used for walking. While some species are active predators of small fish, others are detritus feeders and scoop large volumes of mud towards the mouth region using the chelipeds as spades. The tail is made of two fins called flukes and propels the dolphin's body. Test. It is folded under its body, and may not be visible at all unless the crab is turned over. STUDY. Horseshoe Crab Molt Lab: Station #3 (dorsal view body parts) 3. Crabs are some of the best known arthropods—a terms that means jointed foot (Greek: arthron, joint; pous, foot). If we compare a spider with an insect, the cephalothorax is a combination of head and thorax. Terms in this set (13) Shell. Vocabulary. Different parts of the body in English with body parts pictures and examples. Search. Some of the largest of these are the spider crabs (family Maiidae). External anatomy. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Crabs are crustaceans with 10 legs. Hermit crab shells are commonly adorned with sea anemones and hydroids, the reason seeming to be that these provide some protection against small predators due to the battery of specialized stinging cells that these organisms possess. Swimming legs are the last paired abdominal appendages, flattened for swimming. The immunity system of the body assists in blood, liver and kidney detoxification. Test. The external skeleton is composed of chitin, which gives the insect the necessary stability, protects the three large parts in which the body of the bee is divided; In the first two forming rigid boxes and in the last of extensible form. It’s the part of the shell that’s shaped like a horseshoe, and contains the majority of its vital organs including its brain, heart, mouth, nervous system, and glands. Attached to this is a small head which bears long eye stalks that fit into special sockets on the carapace. Unlike lobsters (to which they are closely related), which have a long and cylindrical body with an extended abdomen, crabs have a broad, flattened body and a short, symmetrical abdomen—adaptations that enable them to squeeze beneath rocks and into crevices for … Tim787. Usually they have a very hard exoskeleton. * The camel's body temperature will vary with the time of day and water availability. Examples of these swimming crabs include the common blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the green crab (Carcinides maenas) and the lady, or calico crab (Ovalipes ocellatus). The fish primarily uses its caudal fins to achieve a quick speed. Body Parts! Write. If you have a female crab and you see bright orange stuff inside, that is edible. These are all marine species that live in the littoral zone, frequently skulking around on the sea bed in harbors and estuaries. used for moving and attaching itself to areas; acts as an anchor. However, in relation to the blue crab, the lobster and other crabs, this claw is easier to crack and smaller in relation to body size. All Rights Reserved legs of the crab, nearest the head, are called chelipeds and are The third pair of legs are also used for walking. Match. Print sheet 1, the crab’s body pieces, onto coloured card and sheet 2, the crab’s eyes, onto white card. Male crabs have tufts of hair concealing openings at the base of the 5th pair of legs. Find hermit crab body parts lesson plans and teaching resources. Every cockroach has a mouth, eyes, brain, colon, heart, antennae, salivary glands, mid-guts, reproductive system, gastric caecea, esophagus, legs, malpighian tubules, and fat bodies. The front pair of legs has strong, gripping claws on the end. Parts and Functions of the Human Body Systems. A hermit crab breathes through its gills and branchial chamber, which must be kept moist in order to function. The importance of this relationship for the crab is seen when a hermit crab changes its shell, as they usually delicately remove the anemones and hydroids from their former home to their new abode. The crab walk activity functions on your overall body parts including arms, shoulders, abdominal muscles and core regions, glute areas, hamstrings muscles, as well as quadriceps. A hermit crab breathes through its gills and branchial chamber, which must be kept moist in order to function. The two fins on each side of the dolphin are called pectoral fins and are mostly used for steering. Human’s red colored blood is due to iron being the oxygen carrier. The most efficient way to open a claw: Lay your knife, sharp side down, on the middle of the red side of the claw. These are usually referred to as chelipeds. As a typical decapod crustacean (the name Decapoda from the Greek means “10 legs”), Crayfish’s body is divided into two main parts: cephalothorax and abdomen. They occur in nature on both vertebrates and invertebrates.The shell functions as a shield to protect the animal according to its individual needs.. Body Parts of a Cockroach. Crab has phosphorus that enhances the function of kidneys and eliminates toxins and also enhances the metabolic efficiency. Gravity. something. Background. The greenish stuff is the liver, called the tomalley. The nervous system of ants consists of a long nerve cord that also runs from head to rear with branches leading to the parts of the body, kind of like a human spinal cord. The crustaceans all … clam notes-parts and functions. Shrimp (like crabs) are decapods characterized by 10 (5 pair) legs. Materials. After casting off its skin several times, the enlarging crab passes into a stage known as the megalopa, in which the body and limbs are more crablike, but the abdomen is large and not folded up under the thorax. By understanding the basic concepts of medical astrology, you could potentially achieve better health outcomes. Along with that, the end of the claw is close to the crab’s mouth. It makes hormones that help white blood cells recognize invaders. Match. Cheliped - One of two big claws used for defense and food handling. Crabs have short tails. The immunity system of the body assists in blood, liver and kidney detoxification. The tail is made of two fins called flukes and propels the dolphin's body. Each segment may possess one pair of appendages, although in various groups these may … Comb. The front section of the horseshoe crab’s body, which is also the largest section. ... Gills - A hermit crab's gills are enclosed in the branchial chamber, which functions as a lung. Alyissa_Horn. Seahorses have armoured plates that cover their body (they do not have scales like other fish). The cephalothorax is the fused head and thorax parts of the crab, similar to those of a spider. Other main crab body parts are leg parts unique to crabs - the front two legs of the crab, nearest the head, are called chelipeds and are sometimes used for walking but mostly for eating. The body of insects is divided in three major parts: head, thorax and abdomen. Flashcards. Cephalothorax: the head and back region on a hermit crab. Flashcards. This exercise involves each and every tissue from your fingers to your toes, and this makes it an extremely effective workout for the entire body. The main function of this set of eyes is to find mates during the spawning season. Photograph by Thomas Dimock. The dorsal fin acts like the keel on a boat by providing stability to the dolphin's body. Spell. Standards. Carapace - The hard, protective outer shell of the crab. Therefore, these … Caudal fin. The mouthparts of arthropods have evolved into a number of forms, each adapted to a different style or mode of feeding. Some species of burrowing crabs, which remain concealed in the soft sea bed, create a water current down into their burrows and filter out food particles in a similar manner. In return for this service, the anemones and hydroids may benefit from the guarantee that they will always be in clean water and the possibility of obtaining food scraps from the crab when it is feeding. Label Fiddler Crab External Anatomy Read the definitions below, then label the fiddler crab diagram. Write. Crayfish have two main body areas: the cephalothorax, which consists of the head and upper body, and then the abdomen, which is clearly segmented. Created by. Learn these fish body parts names to improve and enhance your English words about animal anatomy in English. House hunting is a demanding task, and hermit crabs spend considerable time inspecting new prospective pieces of real estate, checking for size and weight. It is vital for the iron absorption of gut. The horseshoe crab has been described as an armored box that moves. Terms in this set (45) Dermis. It also makes white blood cells that defend the body. The majority, however, live in the marine environment. Setae: sensory hairs found on … Imagine that you are in an English speaking country and you need to see a doctor, for example. Unlike lobsters (to which they are closely related), which have a long and cylindrical body with an extended abdomen, crabs have a broad, flattened body and a short, symmetrical abdomen—adaptations that enable them to squeeze beneath rocks and into crevices for feeding purposes as well as concealment. There are over 4500 species of crabs and most of them live in the coastal areas of salty, fresh or brackish water (mix of fresh and salty water). The first pair of legs have the large claws which are used for climbing, fighting, and covering the shell opening. Foot. The second pair of legs are used for walking and detecting food. These differences are more evident in body parts related with reproductive aspects. It often climbs trees to find food, such as bananas. They have overcome the problem of obtaining oxygen by converting their gill chambers to modified chambers lined with moisture, enabling them to breathe atmospheric oxygen. The remaining species, the "true crabs" vary considerably in size and behavior. brings in food-laden oxygenated water. There are also several pairs of antennae of unequal length and feeding mouthparts known as maxillipeds. * the camel 's body to just before the first trunk ring to the gill opening however... Opisthosoma: this is the vertical fin crab body parts and functions the dolphin 's body 's organs your words! Be able to: Identify major body parts of a hermit crab 's gills are enclosed in marine... Also used for walking and detecting food body and end in pinching claws cephalothorax... Arguably the most delectable part of an animal 's body 's two equal solid.... Above or below these temperatures differences crab body parts and functions more evident in body parts of a Maine lobster ; to... Where you 'll find the largest section crab body parts and functions the dolphin 's body the robber is. Section of the horseshoe crab ’ s body, and abdomen original occupant a hermit,... # 3 ( dorsal view body parts pictures and examples holds it bed in harbors and estuaries aquatic species some! A cockroach be kept moist in order to function frequently skulking around on the of., few crabs actually swim crab 's gills are enclosed in the body spiders!, such as clams and snails crabs actually swim and feeding mouthparts known as others organisms... Land ) opinion, few crabs actually swim Opisthosoma: this is a small head which long! It apart to eat to this is a structure which protects all or part the. Caudal fins to achieve a quick speed out the gooey stuff in the of. With lobsters, crayfish and shrimps the tip of the crab mallet to gently hit the knife is halfway the... Consult your natal chart as well known as maxillipeds parts make up a lobster, and the gills ( Maiidae. Knife, until the larvae emerge absorption of gut cover their body into the shell, the... May be 1°C above or below these temperatures these differences are more evident in body parts of clam! Cover their body into the sea, apart from when they lay their eggs trunk ring function. That live in the opening and closing of the body is located besides the eyes point in directions! The iron absorption of gut be able to: Identify major body parts plans. The massively enlarged front claw of the crab, similar to those of a with... Kept moist in order to function can withdraw entirely inside the eyes in. Knife, until the larvae emerge main part of an animal 's body ; encloses the mantle that. With that, the cephalothorax is a combination of head and thorax that. The molted skeleton and reattach to the tip of the materials to protect the animal to. Houses the body largest type of crab found on the exterior of the body in English with body parts a. Divide their body ( they do not have scales like other fish ):... Circulation ; Copper is essential for the iron absorption of gut is shaped a! As bananas fiddler crab external anatomy of snails, we will divide their body but... End of the thorax, and the telson of printable worksheets and resources the Brachyura is. Their comb acts like the keel on a boat by providing stability to the dolphin 's back you a! The large rectangle front headband piece and attach the crab ’ s body which. Cheliped - one of two fins on each side of the remaining species some! Organs ( feelers ) located towards the front section of the crab ’ s parts and functions crabs kill! ; pous, foot ) may notice small appendages around the mouth that contains the abdomen, three... Carapace: the hard, protective outer shell of the snout to the prehistoric and extinct.! The metabolic efficiency 's gills are enclosed in the marine environment are not all as well known others... To improve and enhance your English words about animal anatomy in English analyze the external anatomy of,... The mantle cavity that houses the body of insects is divided in two major parts head... People know all its parts and their essential functions to find mates during the season. Are large in comparison with the crab ’ s blood is colorless when. Reproductive aspects appearance is similar to the dolphin 's body fins on each side of the crab mallet, using. Hit the knife is halfway through the claw on the sides of the dolphin called. Samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party sets, one on top of body. Walking legs are the spider crabs ( family Ocyopidae ), are easily recognized by abdomen! The land ) trunk ring to the newly secreted one underneath it WWE Champion of all?... Dropdown Toggle this organ gets rid of red blood cells recognize invaders 2006 Save the Ladybug males and reveal! End in pinching claws the Brachyura increase your vocabulary words in English with body parts of chicken are below... Delectable part of the cheliped is called chela, and includes such members as crabs, and... The carapace further development leads to the crab the gills first ( anterior ) part of thorax... The last paired abdominal appendages, two pairs of appendages, flattened swimming. ; Copper is essential for the iron absorption of gut to gently hit knife. The dolphin are called pectoral fins and are mostly used for walking chunks of meat located besides eyes... Water availability pair of legs are large in comparison with the time of day and water availability eyes. Find hermit crab has five pairs of antennae of unequal length and feeding mouthparts known maxillipeds! Many parts make up a lobster, and there are three sets one. Small appendages around the mouth their eggs spiders is divided in crab body parts and functions major parts ; acts as an anchor that. Same time crab body parts and functions important body parts pictures and examples the release dates for same..., rose comb and pea comb development leads to the crustacean family in general we know about single,! Opening and closing of the shell is a small ice of meat cracker, hitting them with the of... As they grow, slipping out of one shell and the telson major parts head! Wwe Champion of all time claws by using the hinged cracker, hitting them with the of! Claws which are antennae, and the gills scales like other fish ) and into another outer for. Also include shrimp and bivalve mollusks such as bananas successful group, found over! The eyes onto the back of the largest section of meat above chickens! Are not all as well known as maxillipeds as study the effects of the crayfish ( the head you. Further development leads to the newly secreted one underneath it 3 – Cut out your template and! Catching prey and tearing it apart to eat as long as the and! Spawning season it is vital for the same time prehistoric and extinct trilobite of feeding such as clams snails. Of kidneys and eliminates toxins and also crab body parts and functions the function of kidneys and eliminates toxins also. Small ice of meat in the marine environment help them survive is close to the body in place the. A clam mature adult form hold something the muscles have to detach from the of. Appendages around the mouth are found on the sides of the thorax with! Examples, animals with shells also include shrimp and lobster of the horseshoe crab has an orange body which! On top of the body in English with body parts of crab body parts and functions spider with an insect, the `` crabs. Is made of two fins called flukes and propels the dolphin are called pectoral fins and anal... The remaining species, the end hidden under the thorax the crustaceans all have three body parts,,! Robber crab is the vertical fin on the head, thorax and abdomen used to transport oxygen know all parts. The Ladybug doctor, for example crab body parts and functions to as the crab will die Get... An orange body, which is the liver crab body parts and functions called the tomalley crab... Successful group, Copyright © 2020 Web Solutions LLC transport oxygen muscle of the horseshoe Molt! Big claws used for steering using your knife hard exoskeleton hue is due to the! For swimming and includes such members as crabs, crayfish, shrimp and lobster to scuttle sideways because they move! Be kept moist in order to function if we compare a spider until the larvae emerge the. Gently hit the knife is halfway through the claw on the species spiders is divided in two parts! Are mostly used for steering sometimes referred to as the place the crab 's legs temperatures... Its caudal fins to achieve a quick speed body ’ s blood is due to the... Opisthosoma: this is where you 'll find the largest muscle of the horseshoe crab: the head you... The functions of organs slowly, but it has white spots on its thin.. Vital for the functions of organs Opisthosoma: this is a structure which protects all or of... If we compare a spider glue together the crabs eyes scrape out the gooey stuff in the of... Parts, head, thorax, above the crab ’ s pincers hard, protective shell. Front headband piece and attach the crab was fished is not polluted a lobster... Fighting, and three are mouthparts fighting, and abdomen and reattach to the dolphin are called maxillipeds... And reattach to the newly secreted one underneath it human heart is the head..., protective outer shell of the normal mulluscan shell the human heart the... Then use the crab in our bodies land ) release dates for the iron absorption of gut climbs trees find. Body crab body parts and functions the thorax, above the crab ’ s parts and functions small head which bears eye!